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105 Cards in this Set

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mixotroph
An organism that is capable of both photosynthesis and heterotrophy.
heterothroph
absorbing organic molecules or ingesting larger food particles
photoautotrophs
contain chloroplasts
Three categories of protists
1. photosynthetic (plant–like) protists, or algae
2. ingestive (animal–like) protists, or protozoans
3. absorptive (fungus–like)
Habitats
aquatic (marine and fresh)
damp soil
leaf litter
botton dwellers
top dwellers (plankton)
Symbiont
organism that lives within another host organism
Endosymbiotic Theory
a process in which certain unicellular organisms engulfed other cells mainly cyanobacteria, which became endosymbionts and ultimately organelles in the host cell
Reproduction of protists
1. asexual
2. sexual meiosis
3. syngamy
Primary Endosymbiosis - Mitochondria
the earliest eukaryotes probably acquired mitochondria by engulfing alpha proteobacteria (an aerobic bacteria)
Origin of animals
Primary Endosymbiosis - Plastid
one lineage of heterotrophic eukaryotes acquired an additional endosymbiont—a photosynthetic cyanobacterium—that then evolved into plastids
origin of plants
Secondary endosymbiosis -
Green and Red Algae
A process in eukaryotic evolution in which a heterotrophic eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell, which survived in a symbiotic relationship inside the heterotrophic cell
Examples:
1. cryptomonads - a protozoa engulfed a red alga
2. chlorarachniophytes - a flagellated protozoan engulfs a green alga
The clades:
diplomonads and parabasalids
1.lack plastids,
2. mitochondria do not have DNA, electron transport chains, or enzymes that are normally needed for the citric acid cycle.
3. In some species, the mitochondria are very small and produce cofactors for enzymes involved in ATP production in the cytosol.
4. found in anaerobic environments.
Diplomonads
1. modified mitochondria
2. two equal–sized nuclei,
3. multiple flagella.
NOTE: Giardia intestinalis
Boil water before drinking, diarrhea
Parabasalids
modified mitochondria.
Trichomonas vaginalis, a common inhabitant of the vagina of human females
Euglenozoans
diverse clade that includes predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, and pathogenic parasites
Kinetoplastids
a single, large mitochondrion that contains an organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast
Trypanosoma
1. genus Trypanosoma cause FATAL sleeping sickness in humans (African tsetse fly
2.also causes Chagas′ disease, which is transmitted by bloodsucking insects and can lead to congestive heart failure
Euglenids
A protist characterized by:
1. an anterior pocket, or chamber, from which one or two flagella emerge
2. Paramylon, a glucose polymer that functions as a storage molecule
3. autotrophic, but when sunlight is unavailable, they can become heterotrophic
4. engulf prey by phagocytosis
Alveolates
membrane bounded sacs (alveoli) just under plasma membrane
Dinoflagellates
1. aquatic photoautothrophs and heterothrophs
2. marine and freshwater phytoplankton
3. internal plates of cellulose
4. Two flagella
Red tides
1. Result of rapid growth of dinoflagellates
2. toxic to humans
Apicomplexans
1. Parasites of animals and causes of some serious human diseases
2. "Apex" contains complex of penetrating organelles
3. apicoplast - non-photosynthetic plastid
4. sexual and non-sexual stages require multiple hosts
Sexual reproduction -Apicomplexans
1. OOcyst hosted in mosquitoes produce Sporozoites
2. Sporozoites invade the liver of humans and produce Merozoites
3. Merozoites invade the red blood cells and produce gametocytes
4. The gametes are fertilized and produce a zygote
Ciliates
1. cilia
2. large macro nucleotide
3. small micro nucleotide
Ciliate reproduction
1. conjugation
2. binary fission
Conjugation
sexual process that provides genetic variation
Stramenopila
1. hairy flagellum
2. smooth flagellum
OOmycete (water mold)
1. decomposer
2. parasite
3. filaments (hyphae) facilitate nutrient uptake
Potato Blight
Caused by an oomycete
Phytophora infestans
Oomycete asexual reproduction
zoosporangium -> zoospore -> cyst -> germ tube
Oomycete sexual reproduction
oogonium -> egg nucleus + antheridial Hypha with sperm nuclei -> Zygote germination
Diatom
unicellular algae with unique two part wall of hydrated silica
Golden Algae or Chrysophytes
1. yellow and brown carotoneids
2. biflagellated
3. Unicellular colonial
Brown algae phtyophaetes
Most complex Multicellular
Marine
Seaweed
Brown algae reproduction
Zoospores -> female gametophyte -> egg
male gametophyte -> sperm
fertilization -> zygote -> sporophyte -> sporangia
Cercozoa
Amoeba with Threadlike Pseudopodia
Formainiferans (Forams)
Porous multi-chambered shells called tests and pseudopodia
Radiolarians
Tests made of delicate silica
Phagocytose microorganisms with their pseudopodia
axopodia
radiate from central body
Amoebozoans
Amoeba with lobe-shaped pseudopods
Gymnamoeba
heterothropic
actively consume bacteria and other protists
Entamoeba
Parasites of vertebrates and some invertebrates
Slime molds mycetozoans
once thought to be fungi, but molecularly like Amoebozoa
Plasmodial slime molds
bright colored orange or yellow
Plasmodium
mass undivided by membranes
extends pseudopodia through decomposing material
Cellular Slime Molds
form multicellular aggregates in which cells are separated by their membranes
Dictyostelium discoideum
an experimental model for studying the evolution of multicellularity
Red algae and green algae
closest relatives of land plants
Red algae
phycoerythrin
multicellular
tropics
Green Algae
closely related to land plants
chlorophytes
Fresh water or marine, damp soil, as symbionts in lichens, or in snow
unicellular, colonial, and multicellular forms
sexual and asexual
Plasmodial slime mold reproduction meiosis
Spores -> germinating spore -> Flagellated cells -> amoeboid cells
Plasmodial slime mold reproduction Syngamy
zygote -> feeding plasmodium -> mature plasmodium -> young sporangium ->mature sporangium
Asexual amoeba
Spores -> emerging amoeba ->
solitary amoebas (feeding)
How did Animals, Plants and Fungi evolve?
Animals, Plants and Fungi descended from Protists and other bacteria via Endosymbiosis
Fungi
1. Multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs
2. historically been grouped with plants but are actually more closely related to animals
3. Have cell walls made of chitin
Fungi as symbiont
1. increase surface area of plant roots for water and mineral absorption from the soil.
2. The fungus benefits by obtaining organic nutrients synthesized by the plant.
Mycorrhizae
1. associations between plant roots and fungi
2. may have contributed to colonization of plants onto land by enabling them to thrive, even in nutrient-poor soils.
Fungi as parasites
- absorb nutrients from other living cells
 
Plant pathogens
Chestnut blight, ergotism
Animal pathogens
athlete’s foot, jock itch, ringworm
Fungi as Food source
Provide nutrition for other living cells
Example: mushrooms
Fungi (other uses)
Used in baking, brewing and winemaking
Production of some cheeses, soy sauce and tofu
Production of antibiotics and other medicines (cyclosporins)
Hyphae
network of tiny filaments that form the body and mycelium of fungi
Mycelium
interwoven mass formed of hyphae that inlfiltrates the material on which the fungus feeds
Septa
cellular cross-walls that allow movement of small organelles between cells
Spore
a reproductive cell capable of dividing to produce a multicellular individual by itself
Sporangium
a structure in which spores are produced
Plasmogamy
fusion of cytoplasm of two different cells
Karyogamy
fusion of nuclei of two different cells
Syngamy
fusion of two cells (fertilization)
Dikaryotic (n + n)
having two genetically different nuclei within one cell (not haploid or diploid)
one from each parent
Phytoplankton
plant-like protists
perform photosynthesis and are autotrophs
Zooplankton
animal-like protists
heterotrophs
Green algae - Chlorophyta
mostly freshwater aquatic organisms
some grow in moist soil, or even in snow
similar biochemically to higher green plants, which are derived from these algae
Red and Brown algae
mostly marine algae
red algae can grow to great depths in the ocean - deeper than any other photosynthetic organisms
brown algae have flagella (none in red algae)
Some, like the kelps, can be up to 100 meters long
Unicellular Protists
Most are single-celled and many have cilia or flagella
Zoomastigotes
move by long flagella.
Many are parasitic,
causing such diseases as sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma)
Diatoms
Have a shell made of silicon, in two halves.
Dinoflagellates -
Can cause red tides, which are toxic blooms that sea life and poison shellfish. Some live symbiotically with corals, providing them with carbon compounds through photosynthesis (which is why coral is restricted to shallow seas)
Amoebas -
no cell walls. Move by extensions of the protoplasm, known as pseudopods. Cause of dysentery
Sporozoans
major cause of malaria
Fungi
1. Diverse and Widespread
2. Critical to terrestrial ecosystems because they decompose and recycle vital nutrients
Fungi Nutrition
1. Heterotrophs that do not eat/engulf their food.
2. Secrete Exoenzymes that break down complex compounds and absorb smaller constituents
Fungi Lifestyles
1. Mutualistic Symbiont
2. Parasite
3. Decomposer
Coenocytic fungi
lack septa in hypha
Haustoria
Hypha adapted for entering and destroying prey
Ectomycorrhizal fungi
form sheaths of hyphae over the root and also grow into the exoskeleton of the cell membrane
Endomycorrhizal fungi
form hyphae extended through
the cell wells of the root and also form tubes through invagination of the root cell membrane
heterokaryon (2+2)
having two genetically identical nuclei within one cell (not haploid or diploid)
Yeasts
1. inhabit moist environments
2. reproduce asexually by simple cell division
Deuteromycetes
1. Imperfect fungi
2. No known sexual stage
Origin of Fungi
1. Animals and Fungi evolved from a common unicellular flagellate
2. Evolved before multi-cellular moved to land
3. 460 million years old
Chytrids
1. earliest Fungi
2. saprobic or parasitic
3. freshwater and terrestrial
4. have Zoospores (flagellated spores)
Zygomycetes
1. fast growing molds, parasites, commensal symbiont
2. named for sexually produced Zygosporangia
microsporidia
unicellular parasites of animals and protists
glomermycetes
endomycorrhizae arsbucular
ascomycetes
unicellular yeasts
morels
cup fungi
sexual spores in saclike asci
conidia
produced asexually by tips of specialized hyphae called conidiophores
basidiomycetes
mushrooms and shelf fungi
long-lived dikaryotic mycelium
basidium
a clublike structure that is a transient diploid stage in a basidiomycetes
source of sexual spores - basidiospores
basidiocarps (mushrooms)
sexual produced elaborate fruiting bodies
Fungi-animal symbiosis
Cows-fungi breakdown plant matter in gut
Ants, termites - use digestive power of fungi
Lichens
symbiotic association of million microorganisms in a fungi hyphae
Lichen symbiosis
fungal component ascomycete
alga or cyanobacteria inhabit inner surface under fungi