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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
broad spectrum
a drug that is effective against both g- and g+ organisms.
bacteriocial drugs
an antibiotic that kills immediately
bacteriostatic drugs
those that simply prevent the cell from replicating, and therefore take one bacterial generation to have an effect.
normal flora
bacteria that is suppose to be in the body.
virulent bacteria (e. coli)
organisms by themselves are deadly, when present in large #'s in the intestine they can cause servere diarrhea and even death.
second infection caused by an antibiotic, and can be life threatening.
gram negative
this is when you are placing a stain on the bacteria to see if the stain can get through the wall of the cell. When the stain cannot get through the cell this would gram- and they are harder to fight off.
gram positive bacteria
these can be identified by putting a gram stain on the bacteria and watching to see if the dye enters the cell. If the dye is allowed to enter the wall of the cell then it is consider to be gram postive and easier to fight.
General adverse effects of antiviotics
antibiotics taken orally may also cause gastrointestinal distress, due to the actions of the drug on the intestine inself. An increase in frequecy of yeast infections, and hypersensitivity reactions, which can be life threatening.
hypersensitivity reactions
are istigated by the release of histime, and may begin with a rash, or hives, and progress to wheezing and shortness of breath. May even go into anaphylactic shock.
hypersensitivity reaction precautions
the severity of hypersenitvity reaction may be decreased with premedication with corticosteroids, (prednisone, beclomethasone) and a combinaton of corticosteroids and intravenous epinephrine.
Also by your knowlege of pharmacology and the information in the patients file.
act by binding to specific "penicillin binding proteins" (PBPs) in the bacterial cell wall and inhibiting cell wall synthesis.
cell lysis
the cell wall is incompletely formed, and holes or (fenestrations) are present that allow molecules to pass in and out of the cell, the result is cell lysis, the cell breaks apart.
beta lactam antibiotics
is what penicillins are called, due to a certain molecule structure, called beta lactam ring.
first generation
there are many penicillins which are grouped together according to when they were discovered. We call the olders drugs first generation, the oldest to date are fifth generation.
consequences of antibiotic therapy
decreased activity of oral contracetives, resulting in an unexpected pregnancy, increased bleeding and bruising, microorganisms in the gut manufature a large portion of the bodys vit.K. use of oral antibiotics may eliminate these organisms, thus decreasing vit.K stores.
Prothrombin time (PPT)
decreased ability of blood to clot, decrease of vit.K, becuase of this, the use of antibiotics will also potentiate the actions of warfarin.
the most common form of bacterial resistance is the production by the bacteria of an enzyme that degrades penicillin.
clavulinic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam
drugs to inactivate the penicillianse, and are given along with the penicillin.