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14 Cards in this Set

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Acid
Definition: Any substance that produces hydrogen ions, H+ in a water solution.
SD: When an acid dissolves in water, H+ ions interact with water molecules to form H30. All acids taste sour, are corrosive, and some acids react strongly with metals.
Ex: Pickles contain acetic acid.(766)
Hydronium Ion
Definition: H3O ions which form when an acid dissolves in water and H+ ions interact with water.
SD: Hydronium ions are formed when acids interact with water molecules, and are written as H30.
Ex: When acetic acid mixes with water, the H20 mixes with the H+ to make H30. (766)
Indicator
Definition: Organic compound that changes color in acids and bases.
SD: Acids interact with indicators to produce predictable color changes.
Ex: Litmus paper turns red in acid(766)
Base
Definition: Any substance that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in a water solution.
SD: Bases are also any substance that accepts H+ from acids.
Ex: Medicines such as milk of magnesia and antacid are basic. (768)
Strong Acid
Definition: Any acid that ionizes almost completely in a solution.
SD: The strength of an acid depends on how completely a compound seperates into ions when dissolved in water.
Ex: HCl, HNO3, H2SO4 (772)
Weak Acid
Definition: Any acid that only partly ionizes in a solution.
SD: Weak acids can not fully break down into ions.
Ex: Acetic and carbonic acids(772)
Strong Base
Definition: Any base that ionizes completely in a solution.
SD: Bases, when they dissolve, dissociate into ions.
Ex: Sodium hydroxide(773)
Weak Base
Definition: Any base that does not ionize compltely in a solution.
SD: Not everything ionizes.
Ex: Ammonia (773)
pH
Definition: A measure of the concentration of hydronium ions in a solution using a scale ranging from 0 to 14 with 0 being the most acidic and 14 being the most basic.
SD: Solutions with a pH lower than seven are acidic, higher than seven are bases.
Ex: Soft drinks range from two to four pH, making them acidic.(774)
Buffer
Definition: Solution containing ions that react with added acids or bases and minimize their effects on pH.
SD: Because of buffer systems, even adding a little bit of concentration will not change pH as much.
Ex: HCO3-, a buffer system in the blood. (775)
Neutralization
Definition: Chemical reaction that occurs when H30+ ions from an acid react with the OH- ions from a base to form water molecules.
SD: Hydronium ions from the acid combine with hydroxide ions from the base to produce neutral water.
Ex: HCl + NaOH = 2H2O(l)(777)
Salt
Definition: Compound formed when negative ions from an acid combine with positive ions from a base.
SD: The remaining ions after neutralization react to form a salt.
Ex: Na+ plus Cl- = NaCl (777)
Titration
(Ti-TRAY-shun)
Definition: Process in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution.
SD: Titration uses a known solution (standard solution) and adds it to unknown concentration. The result tells them whether it is acidic or basic.
Ex: Adding a standard solution to an unknown solution to find out the purity of a commercial prodcut. (780)
Soap
Definition: (Stuff that cleans you) Organic salts with nonpolar, hydrocarbon ends that interact with oils and dirt and polar ends that help them dissolve in water.
SD: To make an effective soap, acid must contain ten to 18 carbon atoms.
Ex: Soap. (782)