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596 Cards in this Set

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How much fluid does the kidneys filter?
about 2000 liters
NAME
these filter about 2000 liters of fluid
kidneys
What are some exretory functions of the kidneys? (2)
(1)reg the volume and chemical make up of the blood (2)maitaining the proper balance btwn water and salts btwn acids and bases
NAME
these regulate the vol and chemical make up of the blood and maintaing the proper balance btwn water and salts btwn acids and bases
excretory functions
What are some functions of the kidneys other than exretory functions? (3)
(1)Gluconegoensesis (2)producing the enzyme renin and erythropoietin(3)metabolizing vitamin D to its active form
NAME
some of its functions include gluconeogenoesis, producing the enyzme renin and erythropoietin, and metabolizing vitamin D to its active form
kidneys
What is renin?
helps to regulate blood pressure and kidney function
NAME
this helps to regulate blood pressure and kidney function
renin
What is erythropoietin?
this stimulates red blood cells production
NAME
this stimulats the red blood cells prodcution
erythropoeitin
What are the organs of the urinary system? (4)
(1)kidneys (2)urinary bladder (3)ureters (4)urethra
NAME
this includes the kidneys, urinary bladder, ureters, and urethra
urinary system
What is the urinary bladder?
a temporary storage reservoir for urine
NAME
this is a temporary storge reservoir for urine
urinary bladder
What is the ureters?
are two tubelike organs
What is the three tublike organs that make up the urinary system? (3)
(1)paired urters (2)urethra
NAME
these include the paired urters and urethra
three tubelike oragns of the urinary system
NAME
all of these furnish transportation channels for urine
the paired urters (2)urethra
What are the kidneys shaped like?
beans
NAME
these are bean shaped
kidneys
Where are the kidneys located?
the lumbar region from T12 to L3
NAME
this organ is found in the lumbar region from T12 to L3
kidneys
Which kidney is crowded by the liver and lies lower than the left?
the right
Where is the right kidney located compared to the left?
the right kidney is crowded by the liver and lies lower than the left
NAME
this kidney is crowded by the liver and lies lower than the left
right kidney
What is the renal hilus?
is a vertical cleft that leads into the reneal sinus
NAME
this is a vertical cleft that leads into the reneal sinus
renal hilus
What is the reneal sinus?
is an internal space w/in the kidneys
NAME
is an internal space w/in the kidneys
reneal sinus
NAME
atop of each of these are the adrenal glands
kidneys
Atop each kidneys is a (1)
adrenal gland
ATop each of (1)there is a adrenal gland
kidneys
What are three supportive tissue layers that surround kidneys? (3)
(1)renal capsule (2)adipose capsule (3)renal fascia
NAME
this has three supportive tissue layers that surround it: renal capsule, adipose capsule, and renal fascia
kidneys
What is the renal capsule?
is a fibrous transparent capsule that prevents infections in surrounding regions from spreading the kidneys
NAME
this is a fibrous transparent capsule that prevents infection in surrounding regions from spreading the kidneys
renal capsule
What is the adipose capsule?
is fatty mass that attaches the kidney to the posterior body wall and cushions it against blows
NAME
this is a fatty mass that attaches the kidney to the posterior body wall and cushions it against blows
adipose capsule
What is renal fascia?
is an outer layer of the dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidneys and the adrenal gland to the surrounding structures
NAME
this an a outer layer of the dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidneys and the adrenal gland to the surrounding structures
renal fascia
What is the adipose capsule important for kidneys?
bc it holds the kidneys in thier normal position
the (1)of the kidneys is important in holding the kidneys in thier normal body postition
fatty encasement
What is renalptosis?
refers to when the amount of fatty tissue dwindles causing one or both kidneys to drop to a lower position
NAME
this refers to when the amount of fatty tissue dwindles causing one or both kidneys to drop to a lower postion
renalptosis
Renal ptosis may cause (1)
a urter to become kinked, which creates a problem bc the urine, unable to drain, backs up into the kidneys and exerts pressure on its tissue
NAME
this can cause a urter to become kinked, which creates a problem bc the urine, unable to drain, backs up into the kidneys and exerts pressure on the tissue
renal ptosis
What is hydronephrosis?
is the backup up of urine from ureteral obstruction or other causes
NAME
this refers to the backup of urine from uretral obstructions or other causes
hydronephrosis
What are (3) distinct regions of the kidney?
(1)cortex (2)medulla (3)pelvis
NAME
this has three distinct regions of the kidney cortex, medulla, and the pelvis
kidneys
What is the renal cortex?
is the most superficial region, light in color and has a granular appearnance
NAME
this is the most supericial region, light in color, and has a granular appearance
the renal cortex
What is the renal medulla?
is deep to the cortex, a darker reddish brown color, and has tissue masses called the medullary
NAME
this is deep the the renal cortex, a darker reddish brown color, and has tissue masses called the medullary
renal medulla
the (1) is also called the renal pyramids
medullary
the medullary is also called the (1)
renal pyramids
What are renal columns?
separate the renal pyramids
NAME
these separate the renal pyramids
renal columns
What is the renal pelvis?
is a flat funnel shaped tube, that is continous w/ the ureter leaving the ureter leaving the hilus
NAME
is a flat funnel shaped tube that is continous w/ the ureter leaving the hilus
renal plevis
NAME
these collect urine from the papillae and empty it into the renal pelvis. the urine flows through the renal pelvis into the ureter, which transports it to the bladder, to be stored
calyces
Calyces collect urine from the (2) and empty it into the renal pelvis. The urine then flows through the renal pelvis into the ureter, which transports it to the bladder to be stored
papillae
Calyces collect urine from the papillae and empty it into the (1). The urine then flows through the (1)into the ureter, which transports it to the bladder to be stored
renal pelvis
Calyces collect urine from the papillae and empty it into the renal pelvis. the urine then flows through the renal pelvis into the (1),which transports it to the bladder to be stored
ureter
Calyces collect urine from the papillae and empty it into then renal pelvis. The urine then flows through the renal pelvis into the ureter, which transports it into the (1) to be stored
bladder
What is the pvelitis?
is a infection of the renal pelvis and calyces
NAME
this is a infection of the renal pelvis and the calyces
pevlitis
What are pyelonephrisits?
refers to infections or inflammations that affect the entire the kidneys
NAME
this refers to infection or inflammations that affect the entire kidneys
pyelonephrisits
What are urinary infections caused by females?
fecal bacteria
T or F
some urinary infections can be caused from bloodborne bacteria that lodge and multoply in the kidneys
true
T or F
the kidneys continously cleanse the blood and adjust its composition
true
NAME
these continously cleanse the blood and adjust it composition
kidneys
Under normal resting conditions, the (1)deliver one fourth of the total cardiac output to the kidneys each min
renal arteries
Under (1), the renal arteries deliver one fourth of the total cardaic output to the kidney each min
normal resting conditions
What are the renal arteries?
under normal resting conditions, the renal arteries deliver one fourth of the total cardiac output to the kidneys for each min
NAME
under normal conidtions, these deliver one fourth of the total cardiac output to the kidneys per min
renal arteries
What happens as the renal arteries approach the kidneys?
they are divided into five segmental arteries
NAME
as the this appoarches the kidneys, it is divided into the five segmental arteries
renal arteries
What happens to the segmental arteries in the renal sinus?
each segmental atry branches into several lober arteries which then divide into several lobar arteries
NAME
this branches into several lober arteries which then divide into several lobar arteries
segmental arteries
Draw a chart of the blood flow of the renal arteries to the renal cortex
See p 1000 or notepad
What happens to the interlobar arteries at the medulla cortex junction?
the interlobar arteries branch into the arcuate arteries that arch over the branches of the medullry pyramids
NAME
At the medullar cortex junction, these branch into the arcuate arteries that arch over the branches of the medullary pyramids
the interlobar arteries
More than 90% of the blood entering the kidney perfuses the (1)
renal cortex
More than (1)of the blood entering the kidney perfuses the renal cortex
90%
Describe the blood flow from the veins starting w the renal cortex(HINT: is backwards of the arteries) (4)
Blood leaves the renal cortex goes to the (1)interlobaular (2)arcuate (3)interlobar and then (4)the renal viens
What is the renal plexus?
is a variable network of automatic nerve fibers, ganglia, and provides the nerve supply of the kidneys and the ureter
NAME
this provides the nerve supply of the kidneys and the ureter
renal plexus
What are nephrons?
are the structural and functional units of the kidneys
NAME
these are the structural and functional units of the kidneys
nephrons
What are collecting ducts?
these collect urine from several nephrons and conveys it to the renal plevis
NAME
these collect urine from the several nephrons and conveys it to the renal plevis
collecting ducts
What does each nephron consist of?
glomerulus
NAME
each of these consist of a glomerulus
nephron
What is the glomerulus?
is a tough of capillaries associated w a renal tubule
NAME
this is a tuft of renal capillaries associated w a renal tubule
glomerulus
what is the glomerular capsule?
is the cup shaped end of the renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus
NAME
this is the cup shaped end of the renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus
glomerular capsule
the glomerular capsule can also be called the (1)
Bowman's capsule
What is the renal corpuslce?
refers to the glomerular capsule and the enclosed glomerulus
NAME
this refers to the glomerular capsule and the enclosed glomerulus
renal corpuslce
(1) can also be called the Bowman's capsule
glomerular capsule
What is filtrate?
is the raw material that the renal tubules process from the urine
NAME
this is the raw material that the renal tubules process from the urine
filtrate
What kind of tissue does the parietal layer of the glomerular capsule have?
simple squamous epthilia
NAME
this layer of the glomerular capsule is made up of simple squamous epthilea
parietal layer
What type tissue does the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule have?
consists of highly modifed branching epthilea cells called podocytes
NAME
this layer of the glomerular capsule consists of highly modifed branching epithelia cells called podocytes
the visceral
How do the parietal and the visceral layer of the glomerular capusle differ?
(1)parietal layer- has simple squamous epthelia (2)visceral layer- consists of highly modifed epthelia branching cells called podocytes
What are podocytes?
are highly modifed epthelia branching cells found in the glomerular capsule
NAME
these are highly modifed epthelia branching cells found in the glomerular capsule
podocytes
Podocytes terminated in (1)
foot processes
NAME
these terminate in foot processes
podocytes
What are filtration slits?
are clefts or openings btwn the foot processes
NAME
these are clefts or opening btwn the foot processes
filtration slits
Filtration slits are also called (1)
slit pores
(1)are also called slit pores
filtration slits
What do filtration slits?
allow the filtrate to enter the capsular space inside the glomerular capsule
NAME
these allow the filtrate to enter the capsular space inside the glomerular capsule
filtration slits
What does the PCT stand for?
proximal convoluted tubule
NAME
this makes a loop called the loop of Henle then whends and twists as the DCT before emptying into the collecting duct
PCT
What is the PCT?
makes a loop called the loop of Henle then whends and twists as the DCT before emptying into the collecting duct
What does the DCT stand for?
distal convoulated tubule
What gives the medullary pyramids there striped appearnce?
bc the collecting ducts run through them
NAME
these have a strip appearnce bc the collecting ducts run through them
medullary pyramids
What is the papillary ducts?
deliver urine to the minor calyces via pappillae of the pyramids
NAME
this delivers urine to the minor calyces via papillae of the pyramids
papillary ducts
As the collecting ducts approach the renal pelvis, they fuse to form the large (1)
papillary ducts
NAME
as these approach the renal pelivs, they fuse to form the large papillary ducts
renal pelvis
What kind of tissue does the renal tubule have?
single layer of polar epthilea cells w each of its regions having a unique cellular atomony that reflects the role in processing filtrate
What are the walls of the PCT like? kind of tissue?
are formed by cubiodial epthilea cels w large mitochondria (2)thier lumar surface bear microvilli
NAME
these are formed by cubiodial epthilea cells w large mitochondira, and thier lumar surface bear microvilli
PCT
What is are the walls of the loop of Henle likes?
has descending and ascending limbs
NAME
the walls of this, have descending and ascending limbs
the loop of Henle
What is the thin segment?
is the rest of the descending limb of the loop of Henle
NAME
this is the rest of the descending limb of the loop of Henle
thin segement
What kind of tissue does the thin segement have?
simple squamous epthiliea freely permeable to water
NAME
this has simple squamous epthiliea freely permeable to water
thin segment
What are the thick segment?
is the part of the loop of Henle that in which the epthila becomes cuboidal or even low columnar
NAME
this is part of the loop of Henle in which the epthiliea becomes cubiodal or even low columnar
thick segment
What are (2) of the most important types of cells in collecting ducts?
(1)intercalated cells (2)prinicpal cells
NAME
these are two of its most important cells: intercalated cells and prinicpal cells
collecting ducts
What are intercalated cells?
are cubodial cells w abundant mircovilli that play a role in maintaining the acid base balance of the blood
NAME
these are cubodial cells w abundant micorvilli that play a role in maintaining the acid base balance of the blood
intercalated cells
What are principal cells?
they lack microvilli and help maintain the body's water and Na+ balance
NAME
these lack microvilli and help maintain the body's water and Na+ balance
principal cells
What are cortical nephrons?
represent 85% of the nephrons in the kidneys
NAME
these represent 85% if nephrons in the kidneys
cortical nephrons
What are the juxtamedullar nephrons?
are located close to the medullar junction and play an important role in the kidney's ability to produce concentrated urine
nAME
these are located in the medullar junection and play an important role in the kidney's ability to produce conecntrated urine
juxamedullar nephrons
Every nephron is assocaited w (1)
two capillary beds
NAME
each of these is assocaited w 2 capillary beds
nephron
What are the (2)capillary beds of the nephron?
(1)glomerulus (2)peritubular capilaries
NAME
these have two capillary beds: glomerulus and the pertiubular capillaries
nephron
What is the glomerulus capillary bed? (2)
(1)has capillares that run parallel for filtration (2)is both fed and drained by the afferent arteriole and the efferent arteriole
NAME
this has capillaries that run parallel and is speacialzed for filtration and it is both feed and drained by the afferent arteriole and the efferent arteriole
the glomerulus capillary bed
What is the big differ btwn the glomerulus cappilary bed compared to all other capillary beds?
it is both fed and drained by the efferent arteriole and the afferent arteriole
Where do the afferent arterioles arise from?
the interlobular arterioles that run through the renal cortex
NAME
this arises from the inerlobular artries that run through the renal cortex
afferent arterioles
Why does the afferent arterioles arise from the interlobular arteries that run through the renal cortex? (3)
(1)arterioles are high resistance vessels (2)the afferent arteriole has a large diamter then the efferent, the blood pressure in the glomerulus is extraordinarily high for a capillary bed and easily forces fluid and solute out of the blood into the glomerular capsule
NAME
The is (1)like this because arterioles are high resistance vessels and the afferent arteriole has a large diamter then the efferent, the blood pressure in the glomerulus is extraordinarily high for a capillary bed and easily forces fluid and solute out of the blood into the glomerular capsule
the afferent arterioles arise from the interlobular arteries
Most of the (1) (99%) is absorbed by the renal tubule cells and returned to the blood in the pertibular capillary beds
filtrate
Most of the filtrate (99%) is absorbed by the (1) and returned to the blood in the (2)beds
(1)renal tubule cells (2)pertiubular capillary beds
Most of the filtrate (99%) is absorbed by the renal tubule cells and returned to the blood in the (1)
pertiubular capillary beds
What is one differ btwn the pertiubular capillaries and the glomerulus cappilary beds?
(1)pertiubular cappilary beds arise from the efferent arterioles draining from the glomeruli (2)the glomerulus capillary beds arise from the inerlobular arteries that run through the renal cortex
Where do the pertiubular capillary bed arise from?
the efferent arterioles draining the glomeruli
NAME
these arise from the efferent arterioles draining from the glomeruli
pertibular capillary beds
What are the pertibular capillaries?
they are low pressure, porous capillaries that readily absorb solutes and water from the tubule cells as these substances are reclaimed by the filtrate
NAME
these are low pressure, porius capillaries that readily absorb solutes and water from the tubule cells as these substances are reclaimed by the filtrate
pertibular capillaries
What are vasa recta?
are bundles of long striaght vessels that extend deep into the medullar
NAME
these are bundles of long striaght vessels that extend deep into the medullar
vasa recta
In summary, what does the first capillary bed or glomerulus do?
produces the filtrate
NAME
this produces the filtrate
the glomerulus capillary bed
What does the secound or peritubular capillary bed do?
reclaims most of the filtrate
NAME
this reclaims most of the filtrate
the peritubular capillary bed
Blood flowing through the renal circulation encounters (1)in the afferent and then in the efferent arterioles
high resistance
Blood flowing through the renal circulation encounters high resistance in the (1) and then (2)
(1)afferent (2)efferent arterioles
What is the blood flow like inthe afferent and efferent arteriooles of the renal circulation?
has high resistance
Which has a high blood pressure? renal arteries or renal veins?
renal arteries
Which has a lower blood pressure, renal arteries or renal viens?
renal viens
What is the blood pressure in the renal arteries?
about 95 mm Hg
What is the blood pressure in the renal veins?
about 8 mm Hg or less
NAMe
the blood pressure here is about 95 mm Hg
the renal arteries
NAME
the blood pressure here is about 8 mm Hg or less
renal viens
What is the differ in blood pressure in the renal viens compared to the renal arteries?
(1)renal veins-less (8 mm Hg or less (2)renal arteries is 95 mm Hg
the renal blood pressure declines from (1)in the renal arteries to about (2) in the renal viens
(1)95 mm Hg (2)8 or less mm Hg
The renal blood pressure declines from 95 mm Hg in the (1)to about 8 or less mm Hg in the (2)
(1)renal arteries (2)renal veins
Each nephron has a region called the (1)
juxtaglomerular apparatus
NAME
each of these has a region called the juxtaglomerular apparatus
nephron
What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
is where the initial portion of its coiling DCT lies against the afferent arteriole feeding the glomerulus
NAME
this is where the inital portion of the its coiling DCT lies against the afferent arteriole feeding the glomerulus
juxtaglomerular apparatus
What does JG cells stand for?
juxtaglomerular cells
What are JG cells?
are enlarged smooth muscle cells w prominent secertory granules containing renin
NAME
these are enlarged smooth muscle cells w prominent secretory granule containing renin
JG cells
Where are JG cells found?
in the arteriloe walls of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
NAME
these are found in the arteriole walls of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
JG cells
what is macula densa?
is a group of tall, closely packed DCT cells that lie adjacent to JG cells
NAME
these are a group of tall, closely packed DCT cells that lie adajacent to JG cells
macula densa
What are mesangial cells?
surround the glomerular capillaries and seemginly part of the JGA have phaogcytic and contractile properites
surround the glomerular capillaries and seemginly part of the JGA have phaogcytic and contractile properites
mesaangial cells
Where is the filtration membrane located?
btwn the blood and the interior of the glomerular capsule
NAME
this lies btwn the blood and the interior of the glomerular capsule
filtration mebrane
what is the filtration membrane>
it is a porous membrane that allows free passage of water and soultes smaller than plasma proteins
NAME
it is a porous membrane that allows free passage of water and soultes smaller than plasma proteins
filtration mebrane
What are the (3)layers of the filtration membrane?
(1)the fenestrated endothelium of the glomerular capillaries (2)the visceral membrane of the glomerular capsule made of podocytes (3)the intervening basement membrane composed of the fused basal laminae of the other layers
NAME
this has three layers: (1)the fenestrated endothelium of the glomerular capillaries (2)the visceral membrane of the glomerular capsule made of podocytes (3)the intervening basement membrane composed of the fused basal laminae of the other layers
filtration membrane
NAME
in the filtration membrane, these allow for passage of all plasma components but not blood cells
capillary pores
in the filtration membrane, the capillary pores allow for (1)
passage of all plasma components but not blood cells
the filtration membrane also seems to confer (1)
eletrical selecivity on the filtration process
NAME
this also seems to confer eletrical selecivity on the filtration process
filtration process
What is the charge of most of the glycoprotiens in the filtration membrane?
negative
How does the filtration membrane confect eletrical selecivity?
by most the proteins are negativly charged (2)they repel other macromolecular anions and hinder thier passsage
NAME
this happens bc most of by most the proteins are negativly charged and they repel other macromolecular anions and hinder thier passsage
electrical selectivity in the filtration membrane
NAME
these organs consume 20 to 25 % of the body's oxygen
kidneys
How much total oxygen do the kidneys consume?
20 to 25%
What does filtrate contain?
everything found in the blood plasma except protiens
NAME
this contains everything found in the blood plasam except proteins
filtrate
What happens to filtrate by the time it reaches the collecting ducts?
it has lost most of its nutrient and ions and is now urine
NAME
when this has percolated into the collecting ducts, it has lost most of its water, nutrients, and ions, what remains is urine
filtrate
What is urine?
is mostly metabolic wastes and unneed substances
NAME
this is mostly metabolic wastes and unneeded substances
urine
How much do the kidneys process of blood-dervied flood a day?
about 180 L
NAME
this organ processes about 180 L of blood derived fluid daily
kidneys
How much urine actually leaves the body ?
1%
NAME
only about 1% of this actually leaves the body as this, and the rest returns to circulation
urine
What are (3)major processes of urine formation and adjustment of the blood composition?
(1)glomerular filtration by the glomeruli (2)tubular reabsorption (3)secretion in the renal tubules
NAME
this inolves three major processes: glomerular filtration by the glomeruli, tubular reabsorption, and secretion in the renal tubules
urine formation and adjustment of the blood compostion
What is the glomerular filtration?
is a passive, nonselective process in which the hydrostatic pressure forces fluids and soultes through the membrane
NAME
is a passive, nonselective process in which hydro pressure forces fluids and solultes through the membrane
glomerular filtration
NAME
this can be veiwed as a simple mechnical fibers
the glomeruli
Why can the glomeruli be viewed as simple mechincal fibers?
bc filtrate formation does not consume metabolic energy
T or F
filtrate formation does consume metabolic energy
false
Does filrate formation require metabolic energy?
no
Which is a much more efficient filter, glomerulus or other capillary beds?
glomerulus
Why is the glomerulus a more efficeint filter compared to other capillary beds? (2)
(1)its filtration membrane has a large surface area and is thousands of times more permeable to water and solutes (2)glomerular blood pressure is much more higher than in other capillary beds`
NAME
this is more more efficient filter because its filtration membrane has a large surface area nd is thousands of times more permeable to wter and solutes and glomerular blood pressure is much more higher than in othe capillary beds
glomerulus
What can of molecules can pass through the renal tubule?
molecules smaller than 3 nm in diamter such as water, glucose, amino acids, and nitrogenous bases
NAME
only molecules smaller than 3nm in diamter such as water, glucose, amino acids,and nitrogenous bases can pass through this
the renal tubule
Keeping the (1) in the capillaries helps to maintain th colloid osmotic pressure of the glomerular blood, preventing the losss of all water to the renal tubules
plasma proteins
NAME
this helps to maintian the coloid ostmoticp pressure of the glomerular blood, preventing the loss of all water to the renal tubules
the keeping of plasma protiens in the capillaries
What does the keeping of plasam proteins in the capillaries do?
helps to maintian the coloid ostmoticp pressure of the glomerular blood, preventing the loss of all water to the renal tubules
What is the NFP?
is resposnible for filrate formation and involves foreces acting at the glomerular bed
NAME
this is responsible for filtrate formation and inolves forces acting at the glomerular bed
NFP
What does NFP stand for?
net filtration pressure
What does HPg stand for?
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
What is HPg?
is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane
NAME
this is the cheif force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration mebrane
HPg
What are two forces oppose that drive fluids back into the glomerular capillaries the HPg? (2)
(1)OPg (2)HPc
NAME
this is opposed by two forces that drive fluids back into the glmoerular capillaries: OPg and HPc
HPg
What does OPg stand for?
colloid osmotic pressure of the glomerular blood
What does HPc stand for?
capsular hydrostatic pressure
What are (2) filtration opposing forces of HPg and fluids in the glomerular capsule
(1)OPg (2)HPc
What does GFR stand for?
glomerular filtration rate
What is the GFR?
is the vol of filtrate formed each min
NAME
this is the vol of filtrate formed each min
GFR
What are factors that govern the GFR? (3)
(1)total surface area avaivable for filtration (2)filtration membrane permeability (3)NFP
NAME
this is governed by three factor such as the total surface area available for filtration, and membrane permeability and NFP
GFR
Why can hudge amounts of filtrate be produced by the kidneys?
bc glomerular capillaries are exceptionally permeable
What is the equation for get NFP?
NFP=HPg-(OPg+HPc)
NAME
this equals HPg-(OPg+HPc)
NFP
Because (1), any change in any pressures acting at the filtration membrane
GFR is directly proportional to the NFP changes both the NFP and the GFR
Because GFR is directly proportional to the NFP, (1)
any change in pressures acting on the filtration membrane changes both the NFP and GFR
GFR is directly proportional to the (1)
NFP
(1)is directly proportional to the NFP
GFR
An (1)increses the GFR
arterial blood pressure
An increase in arterial blood pressure, (1)
increases the GFR
Dehydration inhibits (1)
filtrate formation
(1)inhbits filtrate formation
dehydration
Why is maitaining a fairly constant GFT important?
bc resabsorption of water and other substances from the filtrate depends partly on the rate at which it flows through the renal tubules
What does the reabsorption of water and other substances from filtrate depend on?
the partly the rate at wchih it flows through the renal tubules
NAME
this partly depends on the rate at which it flows through the renal tubules
the reabsorption of water ando ther substance from filtrate
What happens if massiave amounts of filtrate form?
the flow is too rapid for needed substances to be reasborbed fast enough and some are lost in the urine
NAME
this happens if flow is too rapid for needed substances to reabsorbed fast enough and some are lost in urine
if massive amounts of filtrate form
What happens if flitrate is scanty and flows slowly?
nearly all of it will absorbed including most of the waste that are normally disposed of
NAME
this happens if nearly all of it is absorbed including most of the waste that are normally disposed of
if the filtrate is scanty and flows slowly
How is GFR held relatively constant?
by both intrinsic and extrinsic controls which regulate renal blood flow
What regulates renal blood flow?
both instrinsic and extrinsic controls
What is a example of a intrinsic control that regulate the renal blood flow?
renal autoregulation
NAME
this is a ex of a intrisnic control that regulates the renal blood flow
renal autoregulation
What is renal autoregulation?
is the adjustment of its own resistance to blood flow
NAME
this is the adjustment of its own resistance to blood flow
renal autoregulation
What does the renal autoregulation allow the kidney to do?
maintain a nearly constant GFR despite fuctutions in a systemic arterial blood pressure
NAME
this helps the kidneys to maintain a nearly constant GFR despite functions in a systemic arterial blood pressure (more specfic )
intrinisc controls such as renal autoregulation
What are (2) types of controls of renalautoregulation?
(1)a myogenic mechanism (2)a tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism
NAME
this has two controls: a myogenic mechanism and a tubuoglmoerular feedback mechanism
renalautoregulation
What is myogenic mechanism?
reflects the tendecny of vascular smooth muscle to contract when streched
NAME
this reflects the tendecy of vascular smooth muscle to contract when streched
myogenic mechanism
A increase in systemic blood pressure will cause (1)
the afferent arterolies to constrict which restricts the blood flow into the glomerulus and prevents glomerular blood pressure from rising to damaging levels
NAME
this cna cause the afferent arterolies to constrict which restricts the blood flow into the glomerulus and prevents glomerular blood pressure from rising to damaging levels
a increase in systemic blood pressure
What does a decrease in systemic blood pressure cause?
the diliation of afferent arteriole and raises glomerular hydrostatic pressure
NAME
this causes the dilation of afferent arterioles and raises the glomerular hydrostatic pressure
a decrease in systemic blood pressure
What directs the tubuloglomerular feedback mehcanism?
the macula densa cells of the jxxtaglmoerular apparatus
NAME
this is directed by the macula densa cells of the juxtaglmoerular apparatus
the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism
NAME
these respond to filtrat flow and osmotic signals
macula densa cells
What do macula densa cells respond to ?
filtrate flow and osmotic signals
What happens when macula densa cells are exposed to slowly flowing filtrate or filtrate w low osmolality?
thier signals promote vasodilation of the afferent arterioles-- which allows more blood flow into the glomerulus and thus increases the NFP and GFR
NAME
this happens when thier signals promote the vasoldilation of the afferent arterioles--- which allows for more blood flow into the glomerulus and thus increases the NFP and GFR
when macula densa cells are exposed to slowly flowing filtrate or filtrate w low osmolarity
What happens when macula densa cells are exposed to filtrate that is flowing rapidly and/or has a high sodium and chloride content?
the macula densa cells prompt generation of vasoconstritor chemcials that causes intense renal vasoconstriction-- that hinders blood flow into the glomerulus which decreases the GFR and allows more filtrate processing
NAME
when this happens, the macula densa cells prompt generation of vasoconstricotor chemicals that causes intesnse renal vasoconstriction-- that hinders the blood flow into the glomerulus which decreases the GFR and allows more filtrate processing
when the macula densa cells are exposed to filtrate that is flowing rapidly and/or has a high sodium chloride content
T or F
the instrinsic controls can handle a extermly low systemic blood pressure such as one that might result from a serious hemorphage
false
Can the instrinisic controls hand a extermly low systemic blood pressure such as on that might result from a serious hemorphage?
no
What is below what amount can the intrinsic controls not handle a low systemic blood pressure?
anything below 90 mm Hg
NAME
anything below this systemic blood pressure and autoregulation will cease
90 mm Hg
What is the purpose of the extrinisic controls regulating the GFR?
is to maintain the systemic blood pressure
Draw what happens when their is low blood pressure in the renal blood vessels?
p 1008
What happens when the vol of extracellular fluid is normal and the sympathic nervous system is at rest?
the renal blood vessels are maximally dilated and the renal autoregulations prevail
NAME
during this, the renal blood vessels are maximally dilated and the renal autoregulations prevail
when the vol of extracellular fluid is normal and the sympathic nervous system is at rest
What happens when during extreme stress or emergency when it is neccessary to shunt blood to vital organs?
neural controls may overcome renal autoregulatory mechiansims
NAME
when this happens, neural controls may overcome renal autoregulatory mechanisms
during exterme stress or emergency when it is neccessary to shunt the blood to the vital organs
When is the renin-angiotensin mechanism triggered?
when various stimuli cause JG cells to release renin
NAME
this is triggered when various stimuli cause JG cells to release renin
renin-angiotensin mechanism
What does renin act on?
angiotensingoen
NAME
this acts on angiotensingoen
renin
What is angiotensinogen?
is a plasma globulin made both by the liver and locally by the PCT cells to release angiotensin I
NAMe
this is a plasma globulin made both by the liver and locally at the PCT cells to release angiotensin I
angiotensingoen
Angiotensin I is converted to (1)
angiotensin II
What is does ACE stand for?
angiotensin converting enzyme
What is ACE?
converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II
NAME
this converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II
ACE
What is angiotensin II?
is a potent vasoconstrictor that activates smooth muscle of arterioles throughout the body, raising mean arterial blood pressure
NAME
this is a potent vasoconstrictor that activates, smooth muscle of arterioles throughout the body, raising mean arterial blood pressure
angiotensin II
What are some of the several factors that can trigger renin release? (3)
(1)reduced strech of the granular JG cells such as a drop in systemic blood pressure below 80 mm Hg (2)stimulation of the JG cells by input from activated macula densa cells (3)direct stimulation of JG cells via B1 adrenergic receptors by renal sympthetic nerves
NAME
this can be caused by (1)reduced strech of the granular JG cells such as a drop in systemic blood pressure below 80 mm Hg (2)stimulation of the JG cells by input from activated macula densa cells (3)direct stimulation of JG cells via B1 adrenergic receptors by renal sympthetic nerves
the release of renin
What are some other factors (not normally) that can trigger the production of renin? (4)
(1)Prostoglandins (2)nitric oxide (3)adenosine (4)endothelin
NAME
these are otehr factors that ca trigger the production of this: prostoglandins, nitric oxide, adenosine, and endoethelin
renin
What are (2) types of prostaglandins?
(1)PGE2 (2)PGI2
NAME
these include PGE2 and PGI2
prostaglandins
What are prostglandins?
are vasodilators produced in response to a symapathic stimulation and angiotensin II, are believed to counteract the effect of noneprinpehrin and angiotensin II on the kidney
NAME
are vasodilators produced in response to a symapathic stimulation and angiotensin II, are believed to counteract the effect of noneprinpehrin and angiotensin II on the kidney
prostglandins
NAME
this is a potent vasodilator produced by the vascular endoethelum
nitric oxide
What is adenosine?
it functions as a vasiodilator systemically, and constricts the renal vascularture
NAME
this functions as a vasiodilator systemically and counteract the renal vascularture
adenosine
What is endothelin?
is secreted by the vascular endothelium and selected tubule cells, endothein is a powerful vasoconstrictor
NAME
is secreted by the vascular endothelium and selected tubule cells, endothein is a powerful vasoconstrictor
endothelin
What is anuria?
is abnormally low urinary output
NAME
this refers to a abnormally low urinary output
anuria
What might a anuria indicate?
(1)that glomerular blood pressure is too low to cause filtration (2)due to the nephrons ceaseing to function
NAME
this can be caused by when glomerular blood pressure is to low, but it is normally results from the when nephrons cease in function
anuria
What keeps on plasma from being drained away as urine?
the fact the most of our tubule contents are quickly reclaimed and returned to our blood
NAME
if werent for the fact that most of our tubule contents are quickly reclaimed and returned to our blood-- this would happen
our plasma would be drained away w our urine
What is the tubular reabsorption?
refers to the process by which our blood plasma is quickly reclaimed and returned to the blood
NAME
this refers to the process by which our blood plasam is quickly reclaimed and returned to the blood
tubular reabsoprtion
When does the tubular reabsorption process start?
it is a transepihtelial process that begins as soon as the filtrate enters the proximal tubules `
NAME
this is a transepithetial process that begins as soon a the filtrate enters the proximal tubules
tubular reabsoprtion process
in order to reach the blood, what are (3) membrane barriers transporters must go through?
(1)luminal and basolateral membranes of tubule cells (2)the endoethelium of the pertibular capillaries
NAME
in order to do this: they need to go through these three membrane barriers: luminal and basolateral membranes of the tubule cells, and the endoethelium of peritbular capillaries
transporters to reach the blood
Why is movement btwn cells limited in the tubule cells?
bc of tight junctions
NAME
tight junctions in tubule cells do this
make movement btwn cells limited
T or F
viturally all organic nutrients such as glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed to maintain or restore nromal plasma concentrations
true
Virtuall all (1)are reabsorbed to maintian or restore normal plasma concentrations
organic nutrients such as glucose and amino acids
Vitrually, all organic nutrients are reabsorbed to (1)
maitain or restore normal plasma conecntrations
What kind of energy does the reabsorbtion process use?
either passive or active
NAME
this is the single most abundant cation in the filtrate
NA
NAME
about of 80% of its energy used for active transport is devoted to thier reabsorption
NA
How much energy is used by NA ?
about 80% of its energy used for active transport is devoted to thier reabsorption
What is the most abundant cation in the filtrate?
na
NA is the (1)in filtrate
the most abundant cation
How is sodium reasborbed?
is almost always reabsorbed actively via the transcellular route
NAME
this is almost always reabsorbed actively via the transcellular route
NA
What are (2)processes that promote active Na reabsorption to occur in each tubule segment?
(1)when NA enters the tubule cells from the filtrate at the luminal membrane and then (2)is actively transported out of the tubule cells by a Na+-K ATPase pump present in the basolateral membrane
NAME
this can be occur when Na enters the tubule cells from the filtrate at the luminal membrane and the is actively transported out of the tubule cells by a Na+-K ATPase pump present in the basolateral membrane
active Na reabsorption
Why is the movement of Na+ cells and other absorbed substances so rapid?
bc of the low hydrostatic pressure and high osmatic pressure
What does the active pumping of Na+ restult in?
a strong electrochemical gradiant that favors its passive entry at the luminal face via cotransport or active transport carriers or via facilated diffusion
NAME
this results in a strong electrochemical gradiant that favors its passive entry at the luminal face via cotransport or active transport carriers or via facilated diffusion
the active pumping of Na+
Why does the active pumping of Na+ result ing a strong electrochemical gradiant that favors its passive entry at the luminal face via cotransport? (2)
(1)the pump maintains the intracellular Na+ concentrations at low levels (2)the K+ pumped into the tubule cell almost immediatly diffuses out into the inter of the tubule cells w a net negative charge
NAME
this will occur bc the pump maitains the intracellular Na+ conecntrations at low levels and the K+ pumped into the tubule cells almost immediatly diffuses out into the inter of the tubule cells w a net negative charge
tive pumping of Na+ result ing a strong electrochemical gradiant that favors its passive entry at the luminal face via cotransport
What is absorbed in the proximal convoulated tubule? (7)
Na ions (2)viturally all nutrients (3)Cations (4)Anions (5)water (6)Urea and lipid soluble soultes (7)small protiens
NAMe
the following substances are reasborbed here: Na ions, virtually all nutrient, cations, anions, water, urea, and lipid soutles, and small protiens
in the proximal convoulated tubule
What is the passive reabsorption?
refers to when substances move along thier electrochemical gradient w/out the use of ATP
NAME
this refers to wehn substances move along thier electrochemical gradient w/out the use of ATP
passive reabsorption
What are aquaphorins?
are water filled pores
NAME
these are water filled pores
aquaphorins
What is obligatory water reabsorption?
refers to the sodium linked water flow
NAME
refers to when water is "obliged " to follow salt
obligatory water reabsorption
NAME
this refers to the sodium linked water flow
obligatory water reabsorption
Why are aquaphorins virtually absent in the distal tubules and collecting duct membranes unless ADH levels are high?
bc of the obligatory water reabsorption
NAME
these vitrually absent in distal tubules and collecting duct unless ADH levels increase
aquaphorin
Are there aquaphorin in distal tubules and collecting ducts?
no unless ADH levels increase
Water moves by osmosis, a process adided by (1)
aquaphorins
How are Na+ reabsorbed?
primary by active transport via ATP dependent Na+-K carriers set
NAME
these are primary reabsorbed by active transport via ATP dependent Na+-K carriers
Na+
NAME
this sets up eletrochemical gradient for passive solute diffusion, osmosis, and secondary active transport of Na_
the reabsorbtio of Na+
What does the reasborbtion of NA trigger?
sets up a eletrochemcial gradient for passive solute diffusion, osmosis, and secondary active transport of Na+
How are virtually all nutrients reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule?
by active transport or (2)cotransport w Na+
NAME
these substances are reabsorbed by active transport or cotransport w Na+
virtually all nutrients in the proximal convoluted tubule
How are cations substance reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule?
(1)passive transport driven by electrochemical gradient for most
NAME
most of these substances are reabsorbed by passive transport driven by electrochemical gradient
cations in the proximal convoluted tubule
How is K+ reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule?
by the paracellular route
NAMe
this cation is reabsorbed by the paracellular route
K+ in the proximal convoluted tubule
How are anions such such as Cl- and HCO3- reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule?
by passive transport (2)paracellular diffusin driven by electrochemical gradient (3)active transport w Na+
NAME
these substances are reabsorbed by passive transport, paracellular diffusion driven by electrochemical gradient and the active transport of Na+
anions such as Cl- and HCO3- in the proximal convoluted tubule
How is water reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule?
by osmosis
NAME
this substance is reabsorbed by osmosis
water
How is urea and lipid soluble solutes reabsorbed by in the proximal convoluted tubule?
by passive diffusion driven by the electrochemical gradient created by the osmotic movement of water
NAME
these substances, are reabsorbed by the passive diffusion driven by the electrochemcial gradient created by the osmotic movement of water
urea and lipid soluble soultes in the proximal convoluted tubule
How are small protiens in the proximal tubule reasborbed?
endocytosed by tubule cells and digested to amino acids w/in tubule cells
NAME
this substance, is reabsorbed by endocytos by tubule cells and digested to amino acids w/in tubule cells
small proteins in the proximal convoluted tubule
What are some substance reabsorbed by secondary active transport (4)?
glucose (2) amino acids (3)lacatate (4) vitamins (5)most cations
How are glucose, amino acids, lacatate, vitamins, anbd most cations reabsorbd?
by secondray active transport
What does Tm stand for?
transport miximimum
What is Tm ?
exculding Na, it refers to nearly every substance that is actively reabsorbed
NAME
exucluding Na, this refers to nearly every substance that is actively reabsorbd
Tm
What doest Tm reflect?
the number of carriers in the renal tubules available to ferry each particular substance
NAME
this reflects the number of carriers in the renal tubules available to ferry each particular substance
Tm
What has hight Tm values?
glucose
What does mean that a carriers are saturated?
it means that all carriers are bound to the substance they transport
NAME
this means that all carriers are bound to the substnace they transport
saturated carriers
What happens if the carriers are saturated in the urine?
the excess is excerted in the urine
T or F
substances cannot be reabsorbed or reabsorbed incompletely
false
Why are some substances not reaborsbed or are reabsorbed incompletely? (3)
(1)lack of carreirs (2)are not lipid soluble (3)are too large to pass through plasma membrane pores of tubular cells
NAME
this can happen because of lack of carriers, substances not lipid souble, and/or are too large to pass through the plasma membrane pores of tubular cells
refers to when some substances are not reabsorbed or are reabsorbed incomplteltly
What are (3) types of nonreasborbed substances?
(1)urea (2)creatinine (3)uric acid
What are the most active reabsorbers?
PCT cells
NAME
these are the most active reabsorbers
PCT cells
NAME
the bulk of the selective or active transport depedent, reabsorption of electrolytes is reabsorbed here
loop of Henle
PCT cells are the (1)
most active reabsorbers
The bulk of (1) occurs in the loop of Henle
the selective or active transport dependent, reabsorption of electroyltes
How is water absorbed in the descending limb of the loop of Henle?
osmosis
What does the descending limb of the loop of Henle reabsorb?
water
What does the ascending limb of the loop henle reabsorb? (5)
(1)Na+ (2)Cl- (3)K+ (4)Ca2+ (5)Mg2+
NAME
this reabsorbes the following: Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+
the ascending limb of the loop Henle
How is Na+, Cl, and K+ reabsorbed by the ascending loop of Henle? (3)
active transport of Cl- and Na+ via Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporters in the thick portion (2)also paracellular transport (3)Na+H- antitransport
NAME
this can be reabsorbed by active transport of Cl-and Na+ via Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporters in the thick portion and also by paracellular transport and Na+H+ antitransport
Na+, Cl- and K+ in the ascending loop of Henle
How can Ca2+ and Mg2+ be reabsorbed in the ascending loop of Henle? (2)
(1)passive transport driven by electrochemical gradient (2)paracellular route
NAME
this can be reabsorbed by passive transport driven by electrochemical gradient and paracellular route
Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
T or F
waters can leave the ascending loob not the dsecending limb of the loop of Henle
false
T or F
more eletrolytes are reabsorbed in the loop of Henle. However, K+ recyles -- it is reabsorbed in the ascending limb and secreted from the descending limb
true
More eletroyltes are reabsorbed in the loop of Henle However, (1)recyltes it is reabsorbed in the ascendign limb and secreted in the descending limb
K+
More eletroyltes are reabsorbed in the (1) however K+ recyles-- it is reabsorbed in the (2) and secreted in the (3)
(1)loop of Henle (2)ascending limb (3)descending limb
How is Na+ reabsorbed in the DCT?
by primary active transport and requires aldosterone
NAME
this is reabsorbed by the primary active transport and requires aldosterone
Na in the DCT
How is Ca2+ reabsorbed in the DCT?
by PTH mediated primary active transport via ATP dependent Ca2+ carrier or Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in basal membrane
NAME
this is reabsorbed by the PTH meidated primary active transport via ATP dependent Ca2+ carrier exchnager in the basal membrane
Ca2+ in the DCT
How is the Cl- reabsorbed in the DCT?
by diffusion following the electrochemical gradient created by the active reabsorption of Na+ and (2)also cotransported w Na+
NAME
this is transported by the diffusion following the electrochemical gradient created by the active reabsorption of Na+ and also cotransported w Na_
Cl- in the DCT
NAME
this can be reabsorbed by osmosis, and faculative water reabsorption,
water in the DCT
How is water in the DCT reabsorbed?
by the osmosis and faculative water reabsorption
How are Na+, H+, K+, HCO3, and Cl -does the reabsorbed in the collecting ducts?
aldosterone-mediated primary active transport of Na+ and the medullary gradient create the conditions neccesary for passive transport of some HCO3- and Cl
What does water reabsorption in the water in the DCT and the collecting ducts depend on?
the abiltiy of ADH to increase the porosity of tubule epithelium
NAME
reabsorption of this depends on the ability of to increase the porosity of tubule epithelium
water
How is urea reabsorbed in the collecting ducts?
by faciliated diffusion in response to concentration gradient in the deep medulla region and most remains in the medullay interstitial space
NAME
this is reabsorbed by the by faciliated diffusion in response to concentration gradient in the deep medulla region and most remains in the medullay interstitial space
urea in the collecing ducts
What can the collectin ducts reabsorb? (7)
(1)Na_ (2)H_(3)k+(4)HCO3- (5)Cl- (6)water (7)urea
NAME
this can reabsorb the following: Na,H+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, water, and urea
the collecting ducts
What can the DCT reabsorb? (4)
(1)Na+ (2)Ca2+ (3)Cl- (4)Water
NAME
this can reabsorb Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and water
DCT
What are some effects of aldosterone? (3)
(1)fine tunes the reabsorption of the remaining Na2+ (2)facilitate water absorption as Na2+ is reabsorbed (3)reduces K+ conectrations
NAME
this fine tunes the reabsorption of the remaining Na2+, faciliate water absorption as Na2_ is reabsorbed, and reduces the K+ concetrations
aldosterone
What does ANP stand for?
atrial natriuretic peptide
What is ANP?
reduces blood Na+ thereby decreasing blood vol and blood pressure
NAME
this reduces blood Na+ thereby decreasing blood vol and blood pressure
ANP
What are some ways taht ANP works to lower blood Na+ levels?
(1)acts directly on medullary collecting ducts to inhibit reabsorption (2)indirectly inhibits Na+ reabsorption by counteracting the stimulatory effeect of Angiotensins II on aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex (3)indirectly stimulates the renal arterioles, thereby reducing water reabsorption and blood vol
NAME
this reduces Na+ levels by acting directly on medullary collecting ducts to inhibit reabsorption, indirectly inhibits Na+ reabsorption by counteracting the stimulatory effeect of Angiotensins II on aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex, and indirectly stimulates the renal arterioles, thereby reducing water reabsorption and blood vol
ANP
What are (2)ways to clear plasma of unwanted substances?
(1)the faliure of tubule cells to reabsorb some solutes (2)tubular secretion
NAME
the faliure of tubule cells to reabsorb some solutes and tubular secretion helps to do this
clear plasma of unwanted substances
What is tubular secretion?
is reabsorption in reverse
NAME
this is reabsorption in reverse
tubular secretion
T or F
thus the urine eventually excreted contains both filtered and secreted substances
true
Urine eventually excreted contain both (1)
filtered and secreted substances
What is the major site of secretion?
PCT
NAME
this is the major site of secretion
PCT
PCT is the major site of (1)
secertion
What is osmolality?
is the number of solutes particles dissolved in one liter of water
NAME
this refers to the number of solutes particles dissolbed in one liter of water
osmolality
What does the osmolality reflect?
the solution's ability to cause osmosis
NAME
this reflects the solution's ability to cause osmosis
osmolality
What is used to measure /desecribe the solute concentration of body fluids?
mOsm
mOsm is used to measure/ describe the (1)
solutes concentration of body fluids or osmolality
What does mOsm stand for?
milliosmol
What should the solute load of body fluids or osmolality be kept at in the renal cortex?
300 mOsm
300 mOsm is "ideal" osmolality of the (1)
renal cortex
How are the kidneys able to keep the osmolality of the renal cortex at 300 mOsm?
through the countercurrent mechanism
What does the countercurrent mechanism help the kidneys to do?
keeo the osmolality of the renal cortex at 300 mOsm
What does the term countercurrent mean?
it means that something flows in the opposite direction through the adjacent channels
NAME
this means that something flows in the opposite direction through the adjacent channels
countercurrent
What does the countercurrent mechanism inolve in the kidneys?
the interaction btwn the flow of filtrate through the long loops of the Henle of juxtamedullary nephrons and the flow of the blood through the adjacent vasa recta blood vessels
NAME
this involves the the interaction btwn the flow of filtrate through the long loops of the Henle of juxtamedullary nephrons and the flow of the blood through the adjacent vasa recta blood vessels
countercurrent mechanism
What is countercurrent multiplier?
is the loop of Henle
The loop of Henle is the (1)
countercurrent multipler
What is the countercurrent exchanger?
is the vasa recta blood vessels
The vasa recta blood vessels are the (1)
countercurrent exchanger
The osmolality increases from (1)to about (2) mOsm on the deepest part of the renal medulla
(1)300 (2)1200
What does the osmalility increase to in the deepest part of the renal medulla?
1200 mOsm
What are (3) factors that keep the countercurrent multipler functioning?
(1)the decending limb of the loop of Henle is relatvily impermeable to solutes and freely permeable to water (2)the ascending limb is permeable to solutes, but not to water(3) the collecting ducts in the deep medullary regiosn are permeable to urea
NAME
this is able to function because (1)the decending limb of the loop of Henle is relatvily impermeable to solutes and freely permeable to water (2)the ascending limb is permeable to solutes, but not to water(3) the collecting ducts in the deep medullary regiosn are permeable to urea
the countercurrent multipler
When does the loop Henle reach a osmolality of 1200 mOSm?
at the elbow of the loop or vasa recta
At the elbow of the loop of Henle (also called the vasa recta, the osmolality can reach as high as (1)
1200 mOsm
Where does most of the reabsorption of Na+, K+, and -2Cl- take place?
in thick segments of the loop of Henle
What is the osmolaltiy in the ascending loop of Henle?
200 mOsm
The (1) concentration in the filtrate is very high in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
Na+ and Cl-
The concentration of Na+ and Cl- in the filtrate is very high in the (1)
ascending limb of the loop of Henle
As the filtrarte flows from the cortex to the medulla in the descending limb, water leaves the tubule by osmosis and the filtrate osmolaity increases from (1) to (2)
(1)300 (2)1200 mOsm
The more (1)the ascending limb extrudes, the more water diffuses out of the descending limb and the saltier the filtrate in the descending limb becomes
NaCl
The more NaCl the ascending limb extrudes, the more (1)diffuses out of the descending limb and the (2)the filtrate in the descending limb becomes
(1)water (2)saltier
Water diffusing out of the descending limb produces a (1)
salty filtrate that the ascending limb uses to raise the osmolaity of the medullary interstital fluid
(1)produces a salty filtrate that the ascending limb uses to raise the osmolaity of the medullary interstital fluid
water diffusing out of the descending limb
NAME
this establishes a postive feedback mechanism that produces the high osmolaltiy of the fluids in the descending limb and the interstitial fluid
when water diffusing out of the descending limb produces a salty filtrate that the ascending limb uses to raise the osmolaity of the medullary interstital fluid
What does water diffusing out of the descending limb produces a salty filtrate that the ascending limb uses to raise the osmolaity of the medullary interstital fluid, help to establish?
establishes a postive feedback mechanism that produces the high osmolaltiy of the fluids in the descending limb and the interstitial fluid
What is the countercurrent exchanger?
refers to the vasa recta
NAME
this refers to the vasa recta
countercurrent exchanger
What is the function of the countercurrent exchanger?
it functions in maaintaining the osmotic gradient established by the cycling of salt while delivering blood cells in the area
NAME
this functions in maintaining the the osmotic gradient established by the cycling of salt while delivering blood cells in the area
the countercurrent exchanger
NAME
these blood vessels on recieve about 10% of the renal blood supply
vasa recta
The vasa recta is extermely (1)
permeable to water and NaCL
NAME
this is extermly permeable to wter and NaCL
vasa recta
As the blood flows into the medullary depths, it (1)
looses water and gains salt
NAME
this inhibits dieuresis
ADH
What does the ADH stand for?
antidieurtic hormone
What is dieuresis?
refers to urine output
NAME
this refers to urine output
dieruresis
What does the ADH hormone do?
inhibits dieuresis
Depending on (1) in the loop of Henle, the urine conecntration may reach as high as 1200 mOsm
the amount of ADH released
When maximal ADH secretion is up, 99 % of the water is (1)
reabsorbed and returned to the blood
ADH is released more or less continously unless (1)
the blood soulte concentration drops too low
NAME
this is released more or less continously unless the blood soulte conecntration drops to low
ADH
When is ADH release enhanced?
by any event that raises osmolaity above 300 mOsm such as sweating or diarrhea
NAME
ths is released by any event that raises osmolaity above 300 mOsm such as sweating or diarrhea
aDH
T or F
there are several types of diutertucs
true
What are diuretics?
are chemicals that enhance urinary output
NAME
these are chemicals that enhance urinary output
diuretics
What is a osmotic diuertic?
is a substance that is not reabsorbed and that carries water out with it
NAME
this is a substance that is not reabsorbed and that carries water out w it/
osmotic diuretic
Give a example of a diuretic?
Alcohol and caffine
NAME
alcholol is a example of this
a dieuertic
What is one other way a substance can work a dieuertic?
by inhibiting Na+ reabsoprtion and the obligatory water reabsoprtion that normally follows
NAME
this can also incease urine output by inhibiting Na+ reabsorption and the obligatory water reabsorption that normally follows
diuertic
What is a example a diuretic that works by inhibiting Na+ reabsorption and by the obligatory water reabsoprtion that normally follows?
caffeine and many drugs prescribed for hypertension or the edema of congestive heart faliure
NAME
a example of this is caffeine and many drugs prescribed for hypertension or the edema of congestive heart failure
a diuretic that works by inhibiting Na+ reabsorption and by the obilgatory water reabsoprtion that normally follows
What are the symptoms of kidney trouble?
include high blood pressure, freqeunt, urination, diffuclt or painful urination, puffy eyes, or swollen hands or feet
NAME
some symptoms of this include high blood pressure, frequent, urination, puffy eyes, or swollen hands or feet
kidney trouble
What can too much phosphorus do?
leache Calcium from the skelton and weakenes bones
NAME
this can leache Calcium from the skeleton and weakens the bones
to much phosphorus
What can too much sodium do?
can raise blood pressure and cause ostperposis
NAME
this can raise your blood pressure and cause osteprosis
too much sodium
What color is the urine?
clear and pale to deep yellow
NAME
this is a clear and pale to deep yellow color
urine
What accounts for urine being a clear and plae to deep yellow color?
urochrome
What is urochrome?
is a pigment found in urine that gives it's color
What does urochrome result from?
the destruction of hemoglobin
NAME
this results from the destruction of hemoglobin
urochrome
The more concentrated the urine, the deeper the (1)
yellow color
The more (1)the urine is, the deeper the yellow color
concentrated
What does the urine smell like?
aromatic
NAME
this smells aromatic
urine
What is the pH of urine like?
slightly acidic
NAME
this is slightly acdic
urine
A diet containing large amounts of protien and whole wheat products will (1)
turn urine acdic
A diet containing (1) will turn acdic
large amounts of protien and whole wheat products
What can cause the urine to become alkaline? (3)
(1)a vegetarian diet (2)prolonged vomiting (3)bacterial infection in the urinary tract
NAME
this can be caused by a vegetarin diet, prolonged vomiting, and bacterial infection in the urinary tract
a alkaline urine
Which has a greater mass, a gallon of urine or distilled water?
urine
What is specfic gravity?
is the term used to compare the mass of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of distilled water
NAME
is the term used to compare the mass of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of distilled water
specifc gravity
What is the specific gravity of urine?
about 1
What is the specific gravity of distilled water?
about 1
Water accounts for about (1) of urine vol
95%
Solutes accounts for about (1)of urine vol
5%
How much does water account for in urine vol?
95%
How much does solutes account for the vol of urine?
5 %
What is the largest component of weight aprat from water?
urea
NAME
this is the largest component of urine by weight aside from water
urea
What are some nitrogenous wastes found in urine?
(1)urea (2)uric acid (3)creatinine
NAME
some of these include urea, uric acid, and creatinine
nitrogenous wastes found in urine
What is creatinine?
is a metabolite of creatine phosphate which stores energy fo rthe regeneration of ATP and is found in large amounts in skeletal muscle tissues
NAME
is a metabolite of creatine phosphate which stores energy for the regeneration of ATP and is found in large amounts in the skeletal muscle tissues
creatinine
What are the ureters?
are slender tubes that convey urine from the kidneys to the bladder
NAME
these are slender tubes that convery urine from the kidneys to the bladder
ureters
The ureters are (1)layred
tri
What does the urter do?
it play an active role in transporting urine
NAME
this plays an active role in transporting urine
ureters
What are kidney stones?
refers to on occasion when Ca, magnesium. or uric acid salts in urine may crystalize and precipate in the renal pelvis
NAME
this refers to when on occasion, when Ca, maganesium, or uric acid salts in urine may crysatlize and precipate in the renal pelvis
kidney stones
What are renal calculi?
refesr to kidney stones
NAME
this refers to kidneys stones
renal calculi
What is shock wave lithotripsy?
refers to a noninavise procedure that ues ultrasonic shock waves to shatter the calculi
NAME
this refesr to a noninavsive procedure that uses the ultrasonic shock waves to shatter the calculi
lithotripsy
What is the urinary bladder?
is a smooth, collapsible, muscular sac that stores urine temporarily
NAME
this is a smooth, collapsible, muscular sac that stores urine temporarily
urinary bladder
NAME
in men, this surrounds the bladder neck inferiorly
the prostate gland
The protate gland surroundst the (1) inferiorly
bladder neck
What is the trigone?
refers to the smooth triagngular region of the bladder base outlined by three openings for both ureters and the urethra
NAME
this refers to the smooth triangular region of the bladder base outlined by three opening for both ureters and the uretha
trigone
What are the three layers of the bladder (include the type of tissue for each layer? (3)
(1)mucosa with transitional epthielia (2)a thick muscular layer (3)a fibrous adventita
NAME
this has three layers: a mucosa containing transitional epithelioum, a thick muscular layer,and a fibrous adventitia
bladder
What is the muscular layer of the bladder called?
the detrusor muscle
What is the detrusor muscle?
refers to the muscular layer that consists of intermingled smooth muslces fibers arranged in the inner and outer longitudinal layers and a middle circular layer
NAME
this refers to the muscular layer that consists of intermingled smooth muslces fibers arranged in the inner and outer longitudinal layers and a middle circular layer
detrusor muscle
Why is the trigone clinically important?
bc infections tend to persist in this region
NAME
infections tend to persist in this regions
trigone
What does the bladder do when it is empty?
is collapes into a basic pyramidal shape and its walls are thick and thrown into folds
NAME
when the bladder does this, it collapses into a basic pyramidal shape and its walls are thick and thrown into folds
when the bladder is empty
What does the bladder do when urine accumulates?
the bladder exapands, becoming pear shaped and rises superiorly in the abdominal cavity
NAME
when the bladder does this, it expands becoming pear shape and rises superiorly in the abdominal caivty
when the bladder accumulates urine
What is the maximum capacity of the bladder?
800-1000ml
NAME
the maxium capacity of this is 800 to 1000 ml
the bladder