Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Maxillofacial Injury Causes
Home Injuries
Atheletic Injuries
Animal Bites
Intentional Violent Acts
Industrial Injuries
Maxillofacial Injuries may include
Soft Tissue Injuries
Facial Fractures
Two significant facts about Maxillofacial Injuries
Appear to be serious
Seldom life threatening
Concerns with Maxillofacial injuries
Compromised upper airway
Potential for heavy bleeding
The history of a patient presenting with Maxillofacial injuries should include
Events leading up to the injury
Time of the injury
Associated medical problems
Last Oral Intake
The key principles of woulnd management of a patient presenting with Maxillofacial injuries should include
Control the bleeding with direct pressure
Pressure bandage
Spinal immobilization
Asses airway for obstructions
Consider airway adjuncts
Facial fractures are common after what type of trauma
Blunt trauma
Signs and Symptoms of Facial fractures are
Asymmetry of cheek bones
Dental malooclusion
Discontinuity of orbital rim
Displacement of Septum
Lacerations and bleeding
Limitation of forward movement of the manible
Limited ocular movement
Visual Disturbances
The middle third of the face includes
floor of the Orbit
The name of the fractures found in a 1901 cadaver study
Le Fort Fractures I - III
(occur in the midface region)
Le Fort I Fractures
Maxilla up to the level of the nasal fossa
Le Fort II Fractures
Nasal bones and medial orbits
Fracture line shaped like a pyramid
Le Fort III Fractures
Craniofacial dislocation and involves all the bones of the face
Signs and Symptoms specific to midface fractures
Midface edema
Unstable maxilla
Lengthening of the face
Numbness of upper teeth
Nasal flattening
Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea
Another name for the Zygoma
Malar eminence (cheek bone)
The Zygoma articulates with
Frontal, maxillary, and temporal bones
Fractures of the Zygoma bones are usually the result of
physical assualtsand vehile crashes
Signs and symptoms of Zygoma fractures
Flatness of a usually rounded cheek
Numbness of the cheel, nose, and upper lip
Altered Vision
Fractures of the Orbit are usually assoicated with what type of fractures
Le Fort II and III
Causes of fractures of the Orbit include
Blunt trauma by an object of greater diameter than that of the bony orbital rim strikes the globe of the eye and surrounding soft tissue, pushes the globe into the orbit and compresses the content.
Signs and Symptoms of Fractures to the Orbit
Preorbital Edema
Subconjunctival ecchymosis
Diplopia (dbl vision)
Enophthalmaos (recessed globe)
Anthesia in the region of the infraorbital nerve
Impaired extraocular movements
Fractures of the orbit are usually associated with
Le Fort II and III and Zygomatic complex
Fractures of the nose
Fractured most frequently and have the least structural strength
Signs and Symptoms of Nose fractures
Swelling with out appreant skeletal deformatiy
Nasal and Ear Foreign Bodies are most common in which type of patients and what are general concerns regurading this patient
Children and infection
Types of ear trauma
thermal injuries
chemical injuries
traumatic perforations
Lacerations to the ear or eye regions are usually caused by
Blunt trauma
Which type of tears heal poorly and are easily infected
Thermal injuries are usually caused by
Prolonged exposure to exteme cold or lesser amount of time to heat
How should chemical injuries be treated
copious amunt of water
bathe ear and ear canal with sterile water
allow to remain in ear canal of 2-3 minutes
repeat for 2-4 times
dry ear and cover
Traumatic Perforations are caused by
Cotton-Tip Applicators
Changes in Pressure (Blast injuires, Scuba diving)
Treament for a penetrating injury
Stabilize object in place
Cover to protect for infection and contamination
Changes in barometric pressure, great enough to produce inflammation and injury to the middle ear
Barotitis can be caused by
Scuba diving
Flying at high altitudes
Causes of eye trauma
Blunt or penetrating trauma from MVC
Violent altercations
Chemical exposure
Foreign Bodies
Animal bites or Scratches
History taking of an eye injury should include
Mode of injury
Eye medications
Corrective lenses
Ocular prothesis
Duration of symptoms
A visual Acuity test should be performed, this tests what?
It is a measurement of visual acuity
Examinations that should be performed when eye injury is suspected
Visual Acuity
Pupillary Reaction
Extraocular movements
Tetracaine is used for
Patient comfort in an eye injury case, it is an opthalmic anethetic
Corneal abrasion occurs
when the outer layers of the cornea are rubbed away, it is most common in contact lens weares
Management of a patient with a Corneal abrasion
Dbl patch to the eyes
Usually heal in 24 to 48 hours
Blunt trauma to the eye and adjacent structures may result in
Tramatic hyphema (bleeding into the anterior chamber)
Blunt injury to the eye may be associated with other serious injuries such as
Orbital fracture
Vitreous Hemorrhage
Discoloration of the lens
Prehospital Care for an eye injury
Control the bleeding with direct pressure
Protect the eye with a shield and a cardboard cup
Rapid transport of the patient
Types of contact lenses
Rigid gas Permeable
Soft Hydrophilic
Description of hard contact lenses
microlenses sometimes physician prescribed for an astigmatism
Description of Soft Hydrophilic lenses
Large in diameter extends into the conjunctiva
Description of Rigid gas permeable contact lenses
Similar in size to microlenses and have low water content and high oxygen permeability
An adult has how many teeth
32 teeth
An adult tooth consists of two sections
How long does the paramedic have to replace an avulsed tooth
one hour
Signs and Symptoms of eye contusion injury
Traumatic dilation or constriction of the pupil
Blurred vision
Tears of the iris
Signs and Symptoms of eye traumatic hyphema injury
Traumatic dilation or constriction of the pupils
Decrease in visula acuity
Blood in the anterior chamber
Signs and Symptoms of globe or scleral rupture injury
Decrease in visula acuity to hand movements/ light perception
Lowered intraocular pressure
Pupil Irregularity
Anterior neck trauma may damage
Skeletal structures
Vascular structures
Glands of the neck
The anterior of the neck is divided into zones what are they
Zones I - III
Zone I for the anterior of the neck includes
The base of the neck. The sternal notch to the top of the clavicles
Has an increased mortality rate
Zone II for the anterior of the neck includes
Clavicles to the angle of the manabile
Most common
Zone III for the anterior of the neck includes
Part of the neck above the angle of the mandible
Soft Tissue Injuries to the Anterior of the Neck Include
Hematomatas and Edema
Lacerations and Punctures
Vascular Injury
Laryngeal. Oratracheal Injury
Esophgeal Injury
Treatment for a hematomata and edema
Inubation with spinal precautions may be necessary
Administer cool humidified oxygen
Slightly elevate patient's head
Lacerations and puncture wounds may be classified as
Superficial and deep
Signs and symptoms of laceration injuries may include
Active bleeding
Large expanding hematoma
Mobility and Crepitus
Neurological deficients
Subcutaneous emphysema
Tenderness upon palpitations
Vascular Injury management may include
Securing the airway with spinal precautions
Ventilary support
Central hemorrhage with constant direct pressure
Esiphageal Injury signs and symptoms include
Subcutaneous emphysema
Neck hematoma
Bleeding form the mouth and nose
In an esophageal injury the patient should be placed in what position to avoid:
Semi Fowlers Postion to avoid gastric distention and gastric reflux
Skulll fractures maybe classified as
Linear fractures
Basilar fractures
Depressed skull fractures
Open vault fractures
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there
The cranial nerves pass through an opening called the
Injury to Cranial Nerve I would causse
Loss of smell
Impariment of taste
Hallmark of basilar skull fracture
Injury to Cranial Nerve II would cause
Blindness in one or both eyes
Visual field defects
Injury to Cranial Nerve VII
Immediate or delayed facial paralysis
Basilar skull fracture
Injury to cranial nerve VIII
Basilar Skull fracture
Injury to Cranial Nerve III
Ipsilateral, dilated, fixed pupil
Espeically sompression by the temporal lobe
Mimicking of direct ocular trauma
Types of brain trauma
Mild Diffuse Injury (concussion)
Moderate Diffuse Injury
Diffuse Axonla Injury
Focal Injury
Describe Moderate Difuse Brain Injury
minute petechial bruising of brain tissue
Involvement of the brainstem and reticular activating system
Leads to unconsciousness
and amnesia of the event
Desribe Diffuse Axonal Injury
Severest form of brain injury
Results from brain movement within the skull
Desribe Focal Injury of the Brain
Brain lesions
Types of brain hemorrhage
Epidural Hematoma
Subdural Hematoma
Subarchnoid Hematoma
Cerebral Hematoma
GCS score of 9 to 13 indicates
Moderate traumatic brain injury
GCS score of 8 or less indicates
Severe traumatic brain injury