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46 Cards in this Set

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John Calvin
C.) John Calvin
$ French lawyer, John Calvin was Protestant, French monarchy suppress so he organized a Protestant community in Geneva in Switzerland (Francophone.) Composed treatise, Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536).
$ Geneva missionary center, went to Germany, Low countries, England, Scotland and even Hungary. By late 16th, concept of religious unity was far-fetched.
Martin Luther
$ Martin Luther is a prolific & talented writer against the Roman church (attacked sale of indulgence) Him and followers benefitted printing press.
$ Wanted reform of Christendom, closure of monasteries, translation of Bible, and ending priestly power. Impacted Germany (important cities) which prohibited Roman Catholic observances and required religious service through Protestant doctrine.
King Henry VIII
In England also, until King Henry VIII wanted divorce wife (no boy) but pope refused. He resigned, successors replaced Roman Catholic with Protestant doctrines.
The Council of Trent
2 institutions: Council of Trent and Society of Jesus. Trent: assembly of bishops, cardinals, etc to discuss doctrine and reform based on works of St. Thomas Aquinas (13th) Demanded schools to prepare priests.
St. Ignatius Loyola
St. Ignatius a Basque nobleman and soldier in 1521 with leg would, read spiritual works, found the Society of Jesus. More active in extending Roman church boundaries.
The Society of Jesus
$ Jesuits, the members, rigorous training in languages, literature, history and science. Proved to be good missionaries, best outside of Europe and attracted converts in India, China, Japan, the Philippines, and the Americas, making Christianity a global religion.
King Philip II
1588, King Philip II of Spain forced England to RC by sending fleets. Unsuccessful in dethrone of P. Queen Elizabeth.
$ 1567 Philip sent army suppress Calvinist movement, resistance became rebellion. 1610, 7 northern provinces (Modern Netherlands mon independence called United Provinces (republic) ten s. provinces (modern Belgium) under Spanish and later Austrian rule until 19th century.
The Thirty Years’ War
1/3 of German population gone. Most destructive before WWI. R.C. tried force Bohemian subjects to return to R.C., battleground was Germany. Soon Spanish, French, Dutch, German, Swedish, Danish, Polish, Bohemian and Russian forces had taken part of it.
Charles V
Seemed like Charles V would establish the holy roman empire but unrealistic. Europe feudal unlike China, India, and Ottoman in SW Asia and n. Africa.
A.) Charles V
$ Charles –> land through inheritance.
B.) Imperial Fragmentation
$ He used army to repress rebellion, did not impose new laws (kept with local) did not extend.
C.) Foreign Challenges
$ French threatened by Charles (roman Empire) allied with enemies to trouble him. He retired.
absolutism
B.) Absolutism
$ Kings derived authority from God.
the sun king
The Sun King
$ King Louis XIV saw himself as state. Great things. New industries, roads and canals, abolish internal tariffs, exports.
absolutism in France
Absolutism outside France
$ Philip II absolute monarchy in Spain 16th century. No money for army. Spanish kings canceled debts five times. Austria, Prussia and Russia looked at France as model of central government.
The Peace of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia
$ Ended 30 years’ war with the Peace of Westphalia, regard everyone as equal. European religious unity disappeared and sovereign state arrived.
The Balance of Power
The Balance of Power
$ No one wanted to see one get stronger than the other, if so, allies to stop so from happening. Led to technological development.
The Putting Out System
D.) The Putting-Out System
$ Entrepreneurs would give garment to peasants, they’d make it into products for small price, and entrepreneurs would pick it up to sell it.
the Ptolemaic Universe
A.) The Ptolemaic Universe
$ thought earth as motionless, nine hollow spheres revolve around it. 7 stars are planet and moone 8th held stars and ninth is empty. Thought consisted of other matter.
Nicolaus Copernicus
B.) Planetary Movement
$ planetes=wanderer. Nicolaus Copernicus published On the Revolutions fo the Heavenly Spheres that broke Polemaic theory.
C.) The Copernican Universe
$ Challenged theories and threatened religious beliefs. Christian teachings taught that humans and earth was a unique creation.
Galileio Galilei
A.) Galileo Galilei
$ Johannes Kepler of Germany and Galileo Galilei of Italy rang death knell for Ptolemaic universe. Kepler demonstrated elliptical orbit, not circular. Galileo with telescope found that universe was larger. Also thought velocity irrelevant to weight. And inertia.
Isaac Newton
B.) Isaac Newton
$ 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy of heavens and earth in cosmic system. Explained phenomena such as ebb and flow of tides.
The Englightenment
The Enlightenment
$ Christian religion recognized authorities and sought to subject human world through rational anaylsis, the results was called enlightenment.
John Locke
English philosopher John Locke sought to identigy principles of psychology argued knowledge through perceptions.
Adam (Scottish philosopher)
Scottish philosopher Adam thougth economic affairs and held that laws of supply and demand determine what happens in marketplace
Charles Louis de Secondat (Baron de Montesquieu)
French Charles Louis de Secondat known as Baron de Montesquieu established science to foster stable state.
Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet)
Francois-Marie Arouet epitomized spirit of Enlightenment. Pen name Voltaire, wrote book at 17, and aggressive over oppressive policies such as French monarchy and Roman Catholic church
Deism
Deism
$ Religion, but God does not intervene. No supernatural things.
Theory of Progress
The Theory of Progress
$ Theory of progress: that everything will keep on getting better as the human race lives on.
Dona Marina
Dona Marina aided Spanish conquest of Mexico. Warned of attacks, was sent as slave. Native Nahuatl language, learned Mayan, and later Spanish, aided Cortes. Shortly after birth of a son fathered by Cortes, she died.
· Until 1492 eastern/western no dealings. 1000CE-Vikings in Newfoundland and sporadic explorations. After 1492, European mariners.
Colliding Worlds
$ Europeans had brought new technology to the worlds they’d visited.
I.) The Spanish Caribbean

A.) Tainos
$ Known as Arawaks as well, were prominent in the Caribbean upon European and American arrival.
$ ancestors had sailed in canoes from Orinoco River Valley in South America, by 900CE they had settled with manioc and other crops in small villages under chiefs. Interest in glass, beads, and metal tools that Spanish had brought as trade goods.

B.) Spanish Arrival
$ Made the island of Hispaniola (modern Haiti and the Dominican Republic) the base in the Caribbeans. Establish fort of Santo Domingo, capital.
$ New there were no spices and silk, so exploited though institutions encomienda (Tainos) to mine gold since too little Spanish. Spanish (Encomenderos) cared after welfare, health, and their conversion in exchange for labor. Rebellion, bow+arrow<firearms+iron+horses
$ 1515, abuse cause decline in Taino population in favored Spanish islands (Hispanioloa, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Cuba.)

C.) Smallpox
$ Led to strong decline, so raids to capture but more deaths so European settles flocked to the Caribbean to establish sugar plantations & African slaves. mid 17th century: small class of white administrators, and large masses of African slaves.

II.) The Conquest of Mexico and Peru
$ Spanish interest shifted from Carib. to American mainland.A.) Hernan Cortes
$ allies gave veterans that hate Mexica, leader of Aztec, rule. 1519 Cortes and 450 men into Veracruz on Gulf to Tenochtitlan on Lake Texcoco. Seize emperor Motecuzoma II, starved city surrender. Technology aided.

B.) Epidemic Disease
$ Smallpox aided, killed off by tens of thousands.

C.) Francisco Pizarro
$ Conquest of Peru took longer than Mexico by 1540s, Spanish well established. Epidemic disease, subject despise of Incas, 1530 Francisco had 180 men, then 600.
$ 1533, capital at Cuzco was taken, called Inca ruling elites, seized them, killed every except Atahualpa which they did when they got gold. (Strangulation then decapitation)

III.) Iberian Empires in the Americas
$ Conquest of Mexico and Peru not by Spanish royal policy but by individual efforts.

A.) Spanish Colonial Administration
$ Two centers of authority, Mexico (New Spain) and Peru (New Castile) governed by viceroy who served for king. There are review pf courts known as audiencias (lawyers) but often viceroys viewed through own discretion since it took two years.

B.) New Cities
$ New cities expansion as people derived income through agricultural production. From Mexico city as far as St. Augustine in Florida (1565). Administrators in Lima oversaw affairs from Panama (1519( to Concepcion (1550) and Buenos aires (1536)

C.) Portuguese Brazil
$ Portuguese forces in Brazil. 1494 Spain+Portugal Treaty of Tordesillas division fo world along north-south line 370 leagues west of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands. Spain-west of line. Portugal territory known as Brazil.
$ Pero Alvares Cabral (P mariner) stopped to look at it en route to India, not much significance, but when French and Dutch mariners visited Brazilian shores, P king claimed land, even more so when sugar plantations.

D.) Colonial American Society
$ Dramatic change in culture.

IV.) Settler Colonies in North America

A.) Foundation of Colonies
$ early 17th century plant colonies in N.America. French in Port Royal (Nova Scotia) in 1604, Quebec 1608, English Jamestown 1607, Massachusetts Bay 1630, Dutch New Amsterdam 1623, not long after English seized 1664 as N.Y. 17th-18th French settled in eastern Canada, French scouted St. Lawrence, Ohio, Mississippi Rivers, etc.
$ Hard to cultivate food crops, wanted to do so by fur pitch, tar, or lumber, if not silver and gold. Relied on provisions from Europe, some avoided starvation through indigenous people. Some slaughtered loved ones for flesh.

B.) Colonial Government
$ After Seven Years; War (1763) French in Canada fell under British control.

C.) Relations with Indigenous Peoples
$ Did not find centralized states like Aztec and Inca empires most spoke Algonquian, Iroquois, o Sioux languages. Dozens of societies. Fertile farmland attracted large migrants. Justified their doing so that they use the land not as a hunting “park.”

D.) Conflict
$ Europeans took over land and destroyed villages, raids from indigenous though reduced through smallpox.

Colonial Societies in the Americas
$ European interacted with natives and Africans. Mined precious metals, cultivated cash crops like sugar and tobacco and trapped fur-bearing animals to supply capitalist markets.

I.) The Formation of Multicultural Societies

A.) Cabeza de Vaca
$ He was a Spanish nobleman joined expedition of 300 men from Hispaniola explore Florida in 1527. Many died due to lack of nutrients and clash with indigenous people. Survivors made small boats west across Gulf of Mexico to New Spain, thrown to Galveston, Texas slaves and physicians of natives.

B.) Metizo Societies
$ Iberian colonies were 85% men, P was even more male-dominate than S. Due to small numbers of women, relations with native women rise to mestizo (mixed) society.
$ P men with native and African slave women not just mestizos but mulattoes (p + a) and other combinations.

C.) The Social Hierarchy
$ Migrants born in Europe (peninsulares) top. Criollos or creoles, born in Americas of Iberian parents. Mulattoes, zamboes, and other prominent. Imported slaves and conquered people were at bottom.

D.) North American Societies
• Colonies of FRench and England differed from Iberian because more women. Families. French fur traders associated with native to generate metis (french equiv of mestizos). In French colonial cities (Port Royal and Quebec) liasons with French and Native were less common.
• Colonists were fueled by racism. Superiority. Indigenous: lack of recognition of private property. Unlike Iberians, English did not like mingling different blood.

II.) Mining and Agriculture in the Spanish Empire
• Lure of precious metals. Conquerors smelted artistic and cultural artifacts into ingots. Opened mines to extract the mineral wealth.

A.) Silver Mining
• Silver outweighed gold in quantity and value. In Mexican north and around Zacatecas and high, cold central Andes, esp Potosi. Many indigenous laborers. Over time, became professionals, lost touch with culture. Spoke Spanish. At Potosi, Spanish recruited laborers by adapting the Inca system of draft labor.
B.) The Global Significance of Silver
• Fueled Spanish economy. Gov. Shared one fifth of profits known as quinto. Stimulation of trade.
C.) The Hacienda
• Apart from mining: farming, stock raising, craft production. With mining farms, allowed development of artisans to stock mining towns with textiles, foods, wine, tools, etc.
D.) Labor Systems
• Labor: native populations & small numbers of imported slaves under encomienda system. Due to abuse and overworking, replaced encomiendas with repartimiento system. compelled native communities to supply laborers for Spanish mines and farms, to work for limited periods.

E.) Resistance to Spanish Rule
• Rebellion under encomienda and repartimientos systems. Indig. ppl turned to Spanish law against oppressive colonists.
• 1615: Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, native Peru, 1,200 page letter with 400 hand drawn illustration to King Philip III of Spain asking protection of natives against rapacious colonists. Never got it. Told of dying pop. through abuse.

III.) Sugar and Slavery in Portuguese Brazil
• Spanish: Silver. Portuguese: Sugar in Brazil. Instead of depending on recruitment, depended on import of African slaves.

A.) The Engenho
• Sugar mill (Engenho) related to (Engine) Sugar cane required a lot of processing. Requires both hard labor and intricate skills therefore it was among most complex business enterprises in the Americas.
• Due to importance of sugar. Portuguese with Engenhos were like nobility.

B.) The Search for Labor
• Like Spanish, the P wanted to recruit natives for work but refusal by moving into interior and epidemic disease that took out many.

C.) Slavery
• Relied on slaves, horrible treatment, about 5% death toll annually. Every ton of sugar costed a human life.

IV.) Fur Traders and Settlers in North America
A.) The Fur Trade
• Originally began with fishermen who traded with natives for beaver skin.

B.) The Effects of the Fur Trade
• Rapid decrease in beaver, moved inland, caused natives to have war against each other for land. European gunpower to natives became challenge to other competing villages.

C.) Settler Society
• Started plantation on indigenous hunting grounds.

D.) Cash Crops
• Tobacco of Virginia and Carolina. Later plantations that produced rice and indigo as well as tobacco and by 19th, cotton, too, became an important crop.

E.) Indentured Labor
• Need of cheap labor, traveled to the Americas (orphans, chronically unemployed, etc.)

F.) Slavery in North America
• All Northern American colonies participated and profited from slave trade.

V.) Christianity and Native Religions in the Americas

A.) Spanish Missionaries
• Established schools, learned languages, sought for converts.

B.) Survival of Native Religions
• Refusal to abide to Christianity, continued w/ native traditions (even human sacr.) Until epidemic diseases made leaders realize their god had abandoned them. Even in acceptance of Spanish religion, they fused it with ancient tradition.

D.) The Virgin of Gaudalupe
• Said that Virgin Mary appeared before a peasant near Mexico City in 1531. Reputed for miracles.

E.) French and English Missions
• Did not convert as much as Spanish because they didn’t rule over conquered pop. French had a bit more success.

Europeans in the Pacific
• Interaction: Followed same path as the Americas.

I.) Australia and the Larger World
• European geographers speculated “unknown southern land.”

A.) Dutch Exploration
• Dutch visited islands of southeast Asia for spices but approached Australia from the west. Portuguese prob. Charted it but Dutch made first recorded European sighting of the southern continent. Not impressed.

B.) British Colonists
• Only when Cook charted the eastern coast did European people take interest in Australia.

II.) The Pacific Islands and the Larger World

A.) Spanish Voyages in the Pacific
• Ferdinand Magellan and his crew 1st Europeans to cross the Pacific Ocean in 1521. Encountered one island group: Marianas dominated by Guam.
B.) Guam
• Only pacific island that attracted Spanish interest were Gaum and the Marianas. Overall peaceful relation until Spanish conquest. Resistance was reduced due to smallpox epidemic. Relocated surviving Chamorro into supervised communities.
C.) Visitors and Trade
• Led to rapid change in the Pacific Islands.
Tainos (Arawaks)
A.) Tainos
$ Known as Arawaks as well, were prominent in the Caribbean upon European and American arrival.
$ ancestors had sailed in canoes from Orinoco River Valley in South America, by 900CE they had settled with manioc and other crops in small villages under chiefs. Interest in glass, beads, and metal tools that Spanish had brought as trade goods.
Spanish Arrival
B.) Spanish Arrival
$ Made the island of Hispaniola (modern Haiti and the Dominican Republic) the base in the Caribbeans. Establish fort of Santo Domingo, capital.
$ New there were no spices and silk, so exploited though institutions encomienda (Tainos) to mine gold since too little Spanish. Spanish (Encomenderos) cared after welfare, health, and their conversion in exchange for labor. Rebellion, bow+arrow<firearms+iron+horses
$ 1515, abuse cause decline in Taino population in favored Spanish islands (Hispanioloa, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Cuba.)
Hernans Cortes
A.) Hernan Cortes
$ allies gave veterans that hate Mexica, leader of Aztec, rule. 1519 Cortes and 450 men into Veracruz on Gulf to Tenochtitlan on Lake Texcoco. Seize emperor Motecuzoma II, starved city surrender. Technology aided.
Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
$ Conquest of Peru took longer than Mexico by 1540s, Spanish well established. Epidemic disease, subject despise of Incas, 1530 Francisco had 180 men, then 600.
$ 1533, capital at Cuzco was taken, called Inca ruling elites, seized them, killed every except Atahualpa which they did when they got gold. (Strangulation then decapitation)
audiencias
would review the viceroys for the Spanish kingTwo centers of authority, Mexico (New Spain) and Peru (New Castile) governed by viceroy who served for king. There are review pf courts known as audiencias (lawyers) but often viceroys viewed through own discretion since it took two years.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Portuguese forces in Brazil. 1494 Spain+Portugal Treaty of Tordesillas division fo world along north-south line 370 leagues west of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands. Spain-west of line. Portugal territory known as Brazil.
Pero Alvares Cabral (portuguese mariner)
Pero Alvares Cabral (P mariner) stopped to look at it en route to India, not much significance, but when French and Dutch mariners visited Brazilian shores, P king claimed land, even more so when sugar plantations
Seven Years' War
$ After Seven Years; War (1763) French in Canada fell under British control.
Cabeza de Vaca
Cabeza de Vaca
$ He was a Spanish nobleman joined expedition of 300 men from Hispaniola explore Florida in 1527. Many died due to lack of nutrients and clash with indigenous people. Survivors made small boats west across Gulf of Mexico to New Spain, thrown to Galveston, Texas slaves and physicians of natives.
the social hierarchy
The Social Hierarchy
$ Migrants born in Europe (peninsulares) top. Criollos or creoles, born in Americas of Iberian parents. Mulattoes, zamboes, and other prominent. Imported slaves and conquered people were at bottom.
labor systems
Labor: native populations & small numbers of imported slaves under encomienda system. Due to abuse and overworking, replaced encomiendas with repartimiento system. compelled native communities to supply laborers for Spanish mines and farms, to work for limited periods. Rebellion.
Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala native to Peru
1615: Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, native Peru, 1,200 page letter with 400 hand drawn illustration to King Philip III of Spain asking protection of natives against rapacious colonists. Never got it. Told of dying pop. through abuse.
Sugar and Slavery in Brazil
Spanish: Silver. Portuguese: Sugar in Brazil. Instead of depending on recruitment, depended on import of African slaves.

A.) The Engenho
• Sugar mill (Engenho) related to (Engine) Sugar cane required a lot of processing. Requires both hard labor and intricate skills therefore it was among most complex business enterprises in the Americas.
• Due to importance of sugar. Portuguese with Engenhos were like nobility.
cash crops
• Tobacco of Virginia and Carolina. Later plantations that produced rice and indigo as well as tobacco and by 19th, cotton, too, became an important crop.
Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan and his crew 1st Europeans to cross the Pacific Ocean in 1521. Encountered one island group: Marianas dominated by Guam.
B.) Guam
• Only pacific island that attracted Spanish interest were Gaum and the Marianas. Overall peaceful relation until Spanish conquest. Resistance was reduced due to smallpox epidemic. Relocated surviving Chamorro into supervised communities.
C.) Visitors and Trade
• Led to rapid change in the Pacific Islands.
Hernanes Cortes
Spanish conqueror of the Aztec
last Aztec emperor was Motecuzoma.
Francisco Pizarro
Conqueror of Incas, killed the last Inca emperor, Athualpa
James Cook
Failed to finish the northwest passage but charted the majority of the Pacific nonetheless.
Cabez de Vaca
The first European to explore Florida.