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68 Cards in this Set

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a population can change over generations if individuals that possess certain heritable traits leave more offspring than other individuals
natural selection
an accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organisms' ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments
evolutionary adaptation
change over time in the genetic composition of a population
evolution
tentative explanation of observations; educated guess; untested when first proposed
hypothesis
general explanation of important natural phenomena, developed through extensive and reproducible observations and experiments; results repeat time after time
theory
greek philosopher who view species as fixed (unchanging), permanent, perfect, and immutable; believed life forms could be arranged on a scale of increasing complexity--"scala naturae"; each forms of life(perfect and permanent) had an allotted rung on this scale
aristotle
people believed this philosopher's view for over 2000 years
aristotle
theory stating that species are permanent, immutable; dominant world view for over 2000 years
Natural Theology / Creationism
swedish physician and botanist whose passion was taxonomy
linnaeus
categorizes species into different degrees of similarities (naming and classifying organisms)
taxonomy
developed hierarchial classification scheme and binomial nomenclature
linnaeus
wanted to devlop strict naming system so there would not be confusion about classification of other species
linnaeus
who said, "the observation that some species resemble each other did not imply evolutionary kinship, but rather the pattern of their creation
linnaeus
the binomial is always ________ or __________ and the genus name is always ________. The specific epithet is always in _______ case.
italicized/underlined;
capitalized;
lower
a heirarchy (kingdom, phylum, class...) always goes from
broad (kingdom) to specific (species)
french anatomist who largely devloped paleontology
georges cuvier
paleontology is the study of
fossils
the deeper the strata on fossils, the
older and more dissimilar the taxa are from current life
who advocated catastrophism?
georges cuvier
catastrophism says that each boundary between strata represents a
catastrophe (flood, drought, earthquake...)
hypothesis for profound/dramatic geological change over time
catastrophism
scottish geologist who offered an alternative to catastrophism
james hutton
who opposted cuvier's hypothesis of catastrophism?
hutton
what did hutton believe the reason for dramatic geological change over time was?
gradualism
the idea that big changes on earth don't happen by dramatic events, but rather they change slowly over time
gradualism (hutton)
what theory would explain the grand canyon's small geological developments over time
gradualism
scottish geologist who incorporated hutton's gradualism theory into the theory of UNIFORMITARIANISM
charles lyell
who said that same gelogical processes are operating today as in the past, and at the same rate (gradually and are still continuing to occur)
charles lyell
who proposed that the earth is more than 6000 years old
charles lyell
who said that we can predict the future changes in the earth by looking back at what has happened in the past?
charles lyell
hypothesized that traits of species are not immutable; they can evolve--said that THIS was why changes occured in species
jean baptiste lamarck
invertebrate curator of the natural history museum in paris
jean baptiste lamarck
hypothesized the Mechanism of Evolution
jbl
theory that organisms used and stopped using traits, which caused alterations in future generations
mechanism of evolution
who said that use or disuse of a body part would determine if it was altered or kept
jbl---his theory was completely wrong
englsih demographer who said that plants and animals are capable of producing far more offspring than resources can support; said that the "struggle for existence" is an inescapable consequence
thomas malthus
who used the 'survival of the fittest' theory saying that resources are always limited so organisms can never produce to their ultimate capacity
thomas malthus
who is credited most for the theory of natural selection
charles darwin
visited different islands and observed the different types of species existing on each islands
darwin
went on a three year voyage to circumnavigate the glove
darwin
english gentleman who proposed natural selection as the principle mechanism of adaptive evolution
darwin
english biologist who (apart from darwin) came up with the theory of natural selection
alfred russel wallace
who actually PROPOSED the hypothesis of natural selection to the public
lyell
the origin of species, written by darwin said that from a ______ form came _______ forms
single---->endless
what does descent with modification mean?
that all organisms on earth are linked to the same origin
what process drives adaptation
natural selection
what is adaptation
modification to better suit the environment
darwin said that organisms have the potential for population increase, but
the potential is rarely reached b/c of resources
descent implies
common ancestry
modification is the same as
adaptation
selecting breeding individuals that possess desired traits
artificial selection
who used artificial selection to illustrate the modifying potential of selection
darwin
what is the difference between lamarck and darwin's theories
lamarck believed that use or disuse of a certain characteristic would contribute to existence or absence of that feature. darwin believed that variation between species occured b/c of natural selection and adaptive change
what did darwin's artifical selection theory illustrate?
that selection can be applied by a human--that you can modify the breed of an animal by choosing two parents with traits that you want passed down to the next generation
rapid changes in populations may result from
strong selection
what is an example of strong selection?
pesticide resistance--ex. beetles might have a chromosome that enables them to survive regardless of plant pesticides. this chromosome will obviously be passed onto their children.
traits in different species that AROSE from the exact SAME ancestral trait; may or may not have the same function
homologous trait
what helps to convince people of common ancestry?
homologous traits
traits in different species that have a similar function but AROSE from DIFFERENT ancestral traits
analogous trait
what helps convince people of natural selection
analogous traits
explain the panda example of analogous traits
we share common ancestors with pandas. our hands are very similar to theirs. but our thumb is on the inside of our hands & theirs is on the outside.
what is the important difference between homologous and analogous?
the evolutionary history of the traits themselves is the most important factor. it doesn't matter how related the two traits are as much as the evolutionary history of those traits!
remnants of organs that had important functions in ancestors
vestigal organs
what is an example of vestigial organs?
our appendixes;
the claw on a snake--used to be a leg on an ancestor
common use of DNA, RNA, amino acids, ribosomes, genetic code, ATP, electron carriers, electron transport system, ect
biochemical homologies
what is an illustration that organisms all have common chemistry
biochemical homologies
owes to convergent evolution (adaptive modification)
biogeographical similarities
traits with different ancestry converged and had a similar function because of ENVIRONMENT
biogeographical homology