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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Charles Darwin
Origin of Species
Survival of the Fittest
Natural Selection
Diversity
Fixed and Unchanging
Aristotle
Bible - Genesis - perfect
Linnaeus - Taxonomy
Proof of Evolution
Fossil Record
Homologous Structures
Genomic evidence
Georges Cuvier
Paleontology
Catastropicism
Hutton and Lyell
Gradual geologic change
Lamarck
1. "use and misuse"
2. Acquired traits
3. First to discuss Evolution
Alfred Russell Wallace
Developed theory of natural selection separately from Darwin
artificial selection
The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits.
Darwin's two main themes
1. Evolution explains life's unity and diversity
2. Natural selection is the cause of adaptive evolution
Descent with Modification
All organisms are related from a common ancestor
Ernst Mayr - 1st 3 observations and inference 1
1. Populations increase exponentially
2. But tend to be stable over time
3. Resources are limited

INFERENCE: SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST
Mayr - last 2 observations and last 2 inferences
Observation:
1.Great variation exists in a population
2.Variation is heritable
Inference:
1. Those individuals with diserable traits live to reproduce and survive
2. an unequal ability to survive and reproduce will lead to a gradual change in traits.
Experimental environment transplant
Guppies in killifish pool vs. pike-cichlid pool
Selection for resistance
Bacteria and Viruses evolve rapidly and this poses a great threat to society
Drug Cocktail
3 drug treatment to HIV due to quick evolution of Virus
Homology
result of common ancestry
Anatomical Homology
variations on a common theme present in a common ancestor
Comparative Embryology
Anatomical homologies not visible in adults
Vestigial organs
Remnants of organs that served important functions in ancestors
Molecular Homologies
Genes and proteins shared among ancestors
Biogeography
Geographic distribution of species
Convergent evolution
Organisms in similar environments tend to evolve similar adaptations, although descended from different ancestors
Sedimentary Rocks
Rock formed from sand and mud that once settled in layers on the bottom of seas, lakes, and marshes. Sedimentary rocks are often rich in fossils
Paleontology
The scientific study of fossils
Taxonomy
Ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences, leading to a classification scheme; the branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life.
Catasthropicism
The hypothesis by Georges Cuvier that each boundary between strata corresponded in time to a catastrophe, such as a flood or drought, that had destroyed many of the species living there at that time.
Fossil
A preserved remnant or impression of an organism that lived in the past.
endemic species
Species that are confined to a specific, relatively small geographic area
uniformitarianism
Charles Lyell′s idea that geologic processes have not changed throughout Earth′s history
Gradualism
A view of Earth′s history that attributes profound change to the cumulative product of slow but continuous processes
biogeography
The study of the past and present distribution of species
Malthusian Population Growth
1. organisms reproduce beyond the capacity of their environment (Carrying Capacity)
2. mortality functions as a population control
Social aspects of Evolution
1. contradicts religion
2. contradicts age of earth
3. fixed and unchanging
4. Humans evolved from lesser species??