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31 Cards in this Set

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The transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions, occurring first in England in the eighteenth century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories, and innovations in transportation and communication.
Industrial Revolution
The transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions, occurring first in England in the eighteenth century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories, and innovations in transportation and communication.
Industrial Revolution
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and the consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants and sharecroppers were forcibly expelled.
agricultural revolution
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and the consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants and sharecroppers were forcibly expelled.
agricultural revolution
The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks
mass production
The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks
mass production
English industrialist whose pottery works were the first to produce fine-quality pottery by industrial methods.
Josiah Wedgwood
The transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions, occurring first in England in the eighteenth century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories, and innovations in transportation and communication.
Industrial Revolution
English industrialist whose pottery works were the first to produce fine-quality pottery by industrial methods.
Josiah Wedgwood
A manufacturing technique that breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks that can be performed by unskilled workers. Pioneered in the pottery works of Josiah Wedgwood and in other eighteenth-century factories, it greatly increased the productivity of labor and lowered the cost of manufactured goods.
division of labor
A manufacturing technique that breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks that can be performed by unskilled workers. Pioneered in the pottery works of Josiah Wedgwood and in other eighteenth-century factories, it greatly increased the productivity of labor and lowered the cost of manufactured goods.
division of labor
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and the consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants and sharecroppers were forcibly expelled.
agricultural revolution
The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks
mass production
English industrialist whose pottery works were the first to produce fine-quality pottery by industrial methods.
Josiah Wedgwood
A manufacturing technique that breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks that can be performed by unskilled workers. Pioneered in the pottery works of Josiah Wedgwood and in other eighteenth-century factories, it greatly increased the productivity of labor and lowered the cost of manufactured goods.
division of labor
The application of machinery to manufacturing and other activities.
mechanization
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin many strong cotton threads at once.
Richard Arkwright
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age.
Crystal Palace
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion.
steam engine
Scot who invented the condenser and other improvemts that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation.
James Watt
The application of machinery to manufacturing and other activities.
mechanization
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin many strong cotton threads at once.
Richard Arkwright
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age.
Crystal Palace
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion.
steam engine
Scot who invented the condenser and other improvemts that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation.
James Watt
A device for rapid, long-distance transmission of information over an electric wire. It was introduced in England and North America in the 1830s and 1840s and replaced telegraph systems that utilized visual signals such as semaphores.
electric telegraph
Recurrent swings from economic hard times to recovery and growth, then back to hard times and a repetition of the sequence.
business cycles
The idea that government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs.
laissez faire
European government policies of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland country.
mercantilism
A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint Simon. This philosophy said that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress.
positivism
A philosophy introduced by the Frenchman Charles Fourier in the early nineteenth century which hoped to create humane alternatives to industrial capitalism by building self-sustaining communities whose inhabitants would work cooperatively
utopian socialism