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16 Cards in this Set

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How do you calculate the number of electrons in each energy level?
2n squared where n is the number of the level.
What are the periods of the periodic table?
The periods are the horizontal rows. Period 1 has only hydrogen and helium and these elements have electrons only in the first energy level.
What do the elements in the second period contain.
There are eight elements in the second energy period. They have two electrons in the first energy level plus different numbers of electrons in the second energy level. Starting with lithium each element in the second period has one more electron in the second energy level than the element before it.
What is a group or family of elements?>
Elements in the same column of the periodic table. Example Fluorine, chlorine, and bromine are 3 members of group 17, the halogen family. They have the same number of electrons in the outer energy level.
What determines how an element will combine with other elements?
The number of electrons in the atom's outer energy level.
What are noble gases?
Noble gases are members of group 18. They have eight electrons in their outer energy levels. They do not combine easily with other elements, They resist change. Outer energy level is filled.
What are examples of noble gases?
Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypt9on, Xenon, Radon
What is an electron dot diagram?
It is the chemical symbol for the element surrounded by as many dots as there are electrons in the outer energy level.
How do you know how many dots to make in an electron dot diagram?
For groups 1,2 and 13-18 you can use the periodic table. Group 2 has 2, Group 13 has 3, Group 14 has 4 etc. Helium is an exception, it has only 2 electons in a single layer.
What is a chemical bond?
It is a force that holds 2 atoms together. Chemical bonds form when atoms combine in ways that give them eight electrons in their outer enery levels. When this happens atoms have an outer energy level that is filled.
Explain how some metal atoms can obtain the stable atomic structure of a noble gas.
Example: Na has one electron in its outer energy layer. By losing 1 electron the energy level becomes empty. The energy level below is filled and the stomic structure becomes the same as the stable noble gas neon.
Gaining electrons to become stable:
Elements in group 17 such as Chlorine and florine have seven electrons in their outer energy layer. These elements readily gain an electron to fill their outer energy level. Chlorine gaining an electron then has the same atomic structure of the noble gas argon.
What is an ion?
It is an atom that is no longer neutral because it has lost or gained an electron.
What is an ionic bond?
A chemical bond that hold two ions together for example the positive sodium ion and the negative chlorine ion.
What is a compound?
A pure substance that contains two or more elements.
What is an ionic salt?
A hard crystalline compound in which positive ions of metal atoms and negative ions of nonmetal atoms are line up in a regular pattern. When ionic salts are dissolved in water the ions separate.