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23 Cards in this Set

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Genes
Units of information about specific traits.

Passed from parents to offspring.
Each version of a gene is called an _______.
Allele
Homozygous condition
Two copies of a gene are identical alleles
(homo: same, zygo: joined together).
Heterozygous Condition
Two allele copies are different.

(hetero: different)
Dominant
An allele effect on a trait masks that of any recessive allele paired with it.
Represented by an uppercase letter.
Homozygous dominant
Having a pair of dominant alleles (AA).
Homozygous recessive
Having a pair of recessive alleles (aa).
Hetrozygous individual
Has a pair of nonidentical alleles (Aa).
Alleles an individual inherits are the __________.
Genotype
Observable functional or physical traits are the
_________.
Phenotype
Cross involving parents differing in only one trait.
Monohybrid Cross
(mono - means one)
a character which was not evident in the first filial generation.
Recessive
Theory of segregation
The separation of allelic differences from one another. Segregation may occur at the first or second division of meiosis. Leading to new gene combinations (=recombination).
Tool for determining the probable outcome of genetic crosses
Punnett Square
Probability
A number between zero and one that expresses the likelihood of a particular event.
In a genetic situation, probability doesn't change.
Testcross
(non-human) - an individual with an unknown genotype is crossed with an individual that is homozygous recessive for the trait being studied.
Dihyprid cross
Two traits are studied.
Pleiotropy
(ply-AH-trow-pee)
Wide ranging effect of a single gene.
(pleio: more, tropic: change)
Codominance
Both alleles are expressed.
A gene that has three or more alleles is called a ________.
Multiple allele system
The probability that someone who inherits an allele will have the phenotype associated with
Penetrance
Polygenic traits
result from the combined expression of several genes.
Continuous variation
show a range of continuous, rather than incremental, differences in some trait.