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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 lipids that are esters or amides of fatty acids
1) waxes
2) triacylglycerol
3) glycerophopholipids
4) sphingomyelins
5) glycolipids
_____ are carboxylic acid esters where both R groups are long straight hydrocarbon chain (non-polar)
waxes
_____ are carboxylic acid triesters of glycerols.
triacylglycerol
____ are triesters of glycerols that contain charged phosphate diesters.
glycerophopholipids
_____ are amides derived from an amino alcohol, also contain charged phosphate diester groups.
sphingomyelins
_____ are amides derived from sphingosine, contain polar carb. groups.
glycolipids
lipid that forms protective functions
waxes
lipid that is a major source of biochemical energy
triacylglycerol
lipid that helps to control the flow of molecules into and out of cells
glycerophopholipids
lipid that is essential to the structure of cell membranes
sphingomyelins
lipid that connects by intracellular messangers on the cell surface
glycolipid
lipids that aren't esters or amides
1) steroids
2) eicosanoids
_____ is a lipid containing a 4 ring system
steroid
_____ are chemicals that are responsible for a reaction
eicosanoids
less than __ fatty acids occur in nature
70
Do fatty acids have an even or odd # of C's?
even
In fatty acids, all C's are ___ hybridized.
sp3
Which has higher attractions, saturated or unsaturated fatty acids?
saturated
Which has a higher M.P., saturated or unsaturated fatty acids?
saturated
How many double bonds does a monounsaturated bond have?
1
3 components of wax
1) ester
2) alcohol
3) fatty acid
fatty acids + glycerol =
fat (an ester)
Are triglycerols in natural fats and oils polar or nonpolar?
nonpolar
What is the ionic charge of triglycerols in natural fats and oils?
no ionic charge
____ are solid triglycerols with high proportions of saturated fatty acids.
fats
_____ are liquid triglycerols with high proportions of unsaturated fatty acids
oils
triester vs. triglyceride vs. triaceglycerol
same thing
____ is an ester of glycerol with 3 fatty acids
triglyceride
____ is the process where triglycerols react with water to form their carboxylic acid and alcohol.
hydrolysis
____ is the 1st step of digestion of dietary fats and oils.
hydrolysis catalized by hydrolase
Natural soaps are prepared by boiling lard or other animal fat with ____, in a reaction called saponification.
NaOH
____ is the process of unsaturated being converted to saturated.
hydrogenation
If a fatty acid is unsaturated, will it mostly be cis or trans?
cis
_____ establish a hydrophobic barrier between the watery environment in the cell and outside the cell.
cell membranes
3 major kinds of cell membrane lipids in animals
1) phospholipids
2) glycolipids
3) cholesterol
_____ are used to form cell membrane lipids
triglycerides
components of phospholipid
1) 1 alcohol
2) 2 fatty acids
3) 1 phosphate group
2 types of phospholipids
1) glycerophospholipid
2) sphingolipid
In glycerophospholipids, the alcohol is ____.
glycerol
In sphingolipids, the alcohol is ____.
sphingosine
____ is a glycolipid that coats nerves (myelin)
cerebrosides
____ is a lipid that contains carbs.
glycolipid
components of glycolipid
1) sphingosine backbone
2) 1 fatty acid
3) glucose or galactose
____ is the most abundant and most important steroid in the body
cholesterol
Cholesterol is a component in plasma membranes in all ____ cells.
animal
____ is the precursor of all steroid hormaones and bile acids.
cholesterol
2 forms of cholesterol
1) free
2) esterified
Cholesterol esterifies with ______.
FA
_____ is necessary for biosynthesis & makes up gallstones.
cholesterol
Cholesterol, along with fats, are transported by ______.
lipoproteins
_____ is membrane transport of small nutrients that doesn't require energy in going from areas of high concentration to lesser concentration.
simple diffusion
_____ is a membrane transport that requires protein carriers and energy.
facilitated transport
______ is a membrane transport that requires energy and protein pumps.
active transport
Where are eicosanoids derived from?
20-carbon unsaturated fatty acids
_____ function as short lived chemical messengers that act near their points of synthesis.
eicosanoids
____ & _____ are synthesized in the body from 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid.
prostaglandins and leukotrienes
Where is arachidonic acid derived from?
linoleic and linolenic acid
_____ are fatty acid-like substances that are mostly known for helping you identify pain.
prosataglandins
____ catalyzes the normal physiological production of prostaglandins.
COX-1
____ is responsible for the produciton of prostaglandins in inflammation.
COX-2
_____ induces platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction.
Thromboxane A2
Aspirin and other NSAIDs ingibit the synthesis of thromboxanes by inhibiting the _____.
COX enzyme
_____ produce muscle contractions that can cause asthma-like attacks.
leukotrienes
structure of leudotriene
4 rings, but not closed
steroid vs. cholesterol structure
steroid- ketone
cholesterol-OH