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10 Cards in this Set
The person is a dynamic combination of
all of which work with one another to produce social behavior.
The situation consists of the Physical environment Social environment
The person and the situation interact in various ways.
Motivation: What Drives Us
Why do people help others even when it places them at risk?
Why are people prejudiced against other people they've never even met?
Why do we sometimes agree to buy things we don't even want?;
Throughout this book we will investigate many mysteries of motivation.
Motivation: the driving force that moves people toward their desired outcomes.
Achieving our goals sometimes requires considerable attention.
Attention: the process of consciously focusing on aspects of our environment or ourselves.
Attention is like a spotlight. When we're interested in romance, we shine the beam on an appealing classmate. When we're worried about safety, we focus on strangers in dark alleys.
Automaticity: the ability of a behavior or cognitive process to operate without conscious guidance once it’s put into motion.
Automatic behaviors (like driving on a freeway) are easy, because they don't require attention. Focusing our attention requires willpower.
Knowledge: Our View of Ourselves and the World
Knowledge is a mental representation composed of sensory memories, beliefs, and explanations.
Exemplar: mental representation of a specific episode, event, or individual (e.g. Martin Luther King, John Lennon, the year 1492)
Schema: mental representation capturing the general characteristics of a particular class of episodes, events, or individuals (e.g. Civil Rights leaders, musicians, historical dates)
Self Concept: mental representation capturing our views and beliefs about ourselves.
Reflected Appraisal Process: the process through which people come to know themselves by observing or imagining how others view them
Self Perception Process: the process through which people observe their own behavior to infer their own internal characteristics (e.g. I study a lot, therefore I must care about learning)
Social Comparison: the process through which people come to know themselves by comparing their abilities, attitudes and beliefs with those of others.
Feelings: Attitudes, Emotions, and Moods
Social psychologists consider three types of feelings:
Attitudes, emotions, and moods
Attitudes: favorable or unfavorable feelings towards particular people, objects, events or ideas.
Self-esteem: the specific attitude we have toward ourselves.
Emotions: relatively intense feelings characterized by physiological arousal and complex cognitions (e.g., fear, anger, joy).
Emotions are more intense than attitudes.
Moods: relatively long lasting feelings that are diffuse and not directed toward a particular target.
Where Do Feelings Come From?
Genetic Factors: Feelings are expressed in similar facial expressions across different cultures, and children born deaf and blind show natural expressions for smiling, laughter, anger, and surprise.
Learning and Culture: Experiences with the world teach us to associate certain feelings with certain people, places, or things, and to inhibit or express our feelings depending on rules about what is appropriate in our culture.
(Example: Utku Eskimos rarely express anger; Awlad'Ali Bedouins quickly express their anger)
Persons as Situations: Mere Presence, Affordances, and Descriptive Norms
Small schools are “undermanned” - students participate in more activities, and feel more challenged.
Large schools are “overmanned” - students are less needed, and more likely to be socially isolated
Affordance - Opportunity or threat provided by a situation (e.g. a meeting with your teacher affords an opportunity to demonstrate your intellect)
Descriptive norm - Information about what people commonly do in a situation (e.g. many students carrry backpacks to classes)
Pluralistic Ignorance - The phenomenon in which people in a group misperceive the beliefs of others because everyone in the group is acting inconsistently with their beliefs.
Rules: Injunctive Norms and Scripted Situations
Many situations have "rules" that tell us what we are and are not allowed to do. These rules are called injunctive norms.
Injunctive norms - Rules that define what is typically approved and disapproved in a situation.
Moreover, some situations are scripted, in that there is a general sequence of behaviors expected of people in those situations. Injunctive norms and scripts guide people toward appropriate and expected behavior.
Scripted Situation - A situation in which certain events are expected to occur in a particular order.
Script For Eating Out
Greet the restaurant host or hostess.
Take your seat.
Look at a menu.
Eat your food.
Pay the bill.
Was the order you picked similar to this one?
While it is possible to order your beverages before looking at a menu, it is unlikely that you would eat your food before being seated, or attempt to pay your bill before looking at the menu.
Strong Versus Weak Situations
Some situations are "stronger" than others.
Strong situations afford the people in them fewer opportunities, have clear injunctive and descriptive norms, and are more likely to be scripted.
Strong situations demand that people act in particular ways.
Examples: Funeral, job interview.
Weak situations afford many opportunities, have less clear norms, and are less likely to be scripted.
Weak situations allow people to behave in many different ways.
Examples: Nightclub, picnic.
Culture - the beliefs, customs, habits, and language shared by people living in a particular time and place.
Individualist Culture - A culture that socializes its members to think of themselves as individuals, and to give priority to their own personal goals.
Collectivist Culture - A culture that socializes its members to think of themselves as members of a larger group, and to place the group’s concerns before their own.
Listen to Dr. Neuberg discuss individualism and collectivism. (audio clip)
The Person and the Situation Interact
The person and the situation interact in various interesting ways to influence what we think, feel, and do.
Person Situation Fit: The extent to which a person and a situation are compatible.
Socialization: The process through which a culture teaches its members about its beliefs, customs, habits, and language.
Different Persons Respond Differently to the Same Situation
Focus on Application: Person Situation Fit in the Workplace
Situations Choose the Person
Persons Choose Their Situations
Different Situations Prime Different Parts of the Person
Persons Change The Situation
Situations Change the Person