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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
St. Augustine
- Near present-day Jacksonville, FL
- Built in place of a French Protestant (Huguenot) colony
- Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and his Spanish men destroyed the colony in 1565
- They set up a fortified outpost that would give them control over the region
- Close to sea-lanes used by Spanish treasure ships on their way back to Europe
- Oldest permanent European settlement in the U.S.
Juan de Oñate
- Led group of 500 soldiers and settlers to New Mexico in 1598
- Mexican who had heard of rich cities in the north
- Area was inhabited by Pueblos, who initially were kind to Oñate's men
- Spanish began using torture, rape, and other forceful methods to obtain Pueblo clothing and food
- People of Acoma killed some of the soldiers, so Spanish killed 800 villagers and captured the rest
- Other villages saw cruelty of the Spanish and surrendered to them
Samuel de Champlain
- 1608 - Set up a trading post at what the Iriquois called Stadacona (Cartier had previously stayed there)
- Named it Quebec
- St. Lawrence River valley's most easily defended spot
- Ships had to pass through it in order to reach the heartland of the continent
Jesuits/Black Robes
- Roman Catholic order whose goal was to convert non-Christians to Christianity
- Arrived in Quebec in 1625 and tried to spread European culture to natives by persuading them to move near French settlements and to use European methods of agriculture (unsuccessful)
- Decided to learn native languages and live among natives
- Discredited shamans, convinced natives that smallpox was punishment from God, used European science to predict eclipses
- Less forceful and impatient than the Spanish missionaries
- More in-touch with the natives
New Netherland
- Founded principally for trade
- North American colony of the Dutch West India Company
- Stayed confined to a river valley that provided easy access to its settlements
- No elected assembly --> little loyalty to the leaders
- Population only reached about 5,000
Iriquois-Huron War
- Iriquois = upstate NY; Hurons = Ontario
- Iriquois traded with Dutch, Hurons traded with French
- 1640s - went to war because Iriquois wanted to become Europe's main supplier of pelts and secure hunting grounds
- Iriquois won war because of Dutch weapons and smallpox epidemic --> Hurons were exterminated
- Caused Iriquois to be seen as a major force that could not be ignored
- Proved that demands for pelts in Europe had negatively altered relationships among native communities
Greater Antilles
- Jamaica, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico
- Spanish concentrated on colonizing these islands because of their size
- Left smaller ones to be colonized by other European nations (used as bases to attack Spanish ships)
Lesser Antilles
- St. Kitts, Barbados, Providence (England)
- Guadeloupe, Martinique (France)
- St. Eustatius (Dutch)
- Sources of valuable spices, dyes, and fruits
- Served as bases for attacking Spanish ships carrying gold and silver
English Reformation
- Henry VIII wanted a divorce--> pope would not allow it --> separated from the Catholic Church and formed his own Church of England
- English people had lost respect for Catholic Church and did not oppose
- Protestant Reformation occurred under Elizabeth I
- Led by Calvin and Luther
- Said that people could interpret the Bible for themselves without priests
- Increased literacy
- New belief = only thing needed to be a good Christian was undying faith in God
- English Calvinists = Puritans and Separatists
Martin Luther
- Leader of Protestant Reformation
- Challenged power of priests
- People could interpret Bible for themselves
- Felt that rituals and hierarchies of Catholicism were unnecessary
- Good Christian = undying faith in God
John Calvin
- Took Luther's basic beliefs even farther
- Believed people must submit completely to God's will
- English followers ended up being known as Puritans and Separatists
- Only people who could be "saved" were chosen before birth (predestination)
James I and Charles I
- Successors of Elizabeth I
- James Stuart was her cousin; Charles was his son
- Little tolerance for Puritans, Separatists, and representative government
- Believed in divine right of kings
- Felt they had the power to control their people's religion
- Their religious restrictions led many to flee to America
Joint-Stock Companies
- Originally developed as a way to combine the resources of many small investors to fund trading voyages
- FInanced many English people who moved to the New World
- Worked well in the sense that no one risked great amounts of money and everyone received returns quickly
- Failed in the sense that they could not produce enough capital to support growing colonies
Virginia Company
- 1606 - Established by group of merchants and wealthy gentry
- Wanted to earn profits by finding metals and new trade routes
- Granted a charter by King James I
- 1607 - Established settlement near Chesapeake Bay called Jamestown
- Located on swampy peninsula called Tsenacomoco by natives
- First Europeans to live there were 104 men and boys
- Suffered from disease and drought
- 1608 - Only 38 were still alive
- More people arrived over next two years
- 1624 - only 1,300 of 8,000 immigrants had survived
Captain John Smith
- Used military discipline on colonists in Jamestown who refused to change and adapt
- Saved Jamestown from collapse
"Starving Time"
- Winter of 1609-1610 in Jamestown
- At least one colonist resorted to cannibalism
- Only fractions of immigrants to Jamestown survived
Powhatan Confederacy
- Indians of Tsenacomoco were divided into six Algonquian villages together known as the Powhatan Confederacy
- Powhatan = powerful and wise leader
- First viewed Europeans as allies
- Europeans demanded supplies even during the drought
- Indians could not trade their supplies during that time
- English kidnapped Powhatan's daughter, Pocahontas
- Kidnapped by the English when the Indians were unable to supply the colonists with their crops during the drought
- Agreed to marry John Rolfe, who sailed her to England
- Marriage may have been a diplomatic alliance
- Pocahontas gave birth to Rolfe's son and died in England in 1616
Algonquian/English Cultural Differences
- English men saw Indian men as lazy because they hunted, which was seen as sport in England, and did not do agricultural work
- Indian men believed that English men's agricultural work was "women's work"
- English believed that Indian women were oppressed because they did field labor
- English political and social power passed through the male line
- Indian cultures were usually matrilineal
- English rulers were strong monarchs
- Indian leaders and their people ruled together
- English always saw themselves as superior to the natives and expected them to adopt their methods and culture
John Rolfe
- Married Pocahontas in 1614 and took her back to England, where she gave birth to his son
- Planted first tobacco crop
- Tobacco became one of the most important resources in the New World
"Headright" System
- 1617 - Developed by the VA Company to attract more settlers to the colony
- Each new arrival that paid his/her own way and each colonist who paid for someone else's voyage received 50 acres of land
- Powerful incentive to all social classes in England
- Reform of system created House of Burgesses - assembly of elected colonists created to please the English colonists who were accustomed to electing members of Parliament
- Powhatan's brother and successor
- Launched attacks along the James River in 1622 and killed 1/4 of the colonists in one day
- Remaining settlers were sent weapons from England
- Opechancanough tried to attack again in 1644 but was killed in battle
- Surviving members of Powhatan Confederacy agreed to be subordinate to English authority
- All attempts to stop the spread of European colonization ended
- VA + MD = Chesapeake
- Similar in every way besides religion
- Virginians were all members of Church of England; Maryland practiced religious tolerance
Cecilius Calvert
- Second Lord Baltimore
- First colonizer to provide freedom of religion to all Christian settlers
Indentured Servants
- Immigrated to America promising to work for four to seven years for a colonist or a family of colonists
- Accounted for about 80% of English immigrants to the Chesapeake
- Most were males between the ages of 15 and 24
- Worked 6 days a week and could be sold and disciplined by masters
- Received clothes, tools, livestock, corn, tobacco, and sometimes land after fulfilling contracts
- Fight with disease that immigrants to the Chesapeake had to endure
- About 40% of indentured servants did not survive long enough to become free men
- Former servants who became independent farmers
- Dream of becoming a freeholder was motivation for many to become indentured servants in the Chesapeake
- Some freeholders even obtained political positions
- Late 1620s - Group of Puritan Congregationalists felt that King Charles I and his Church of England were oppressing their practices
- Sent a group of colonists to Cape Ann in 1628
- Obtained a royal charter in 1629 that officially named them the Massachusetts Bay Company
- Came to be known as Pilgrims
- Felt that the Church of England was hopelessly corrupt
- Many moved to New England
- Hoped to isolate themselves from other religions and temptations
- Obtained VA Company's permission to settle in the northern section of their land (ended up farther north)
- 1620 - 102 people (30 of which were Separatists) left England on the Mayflower
- Reached America at a location farther north than planned (due to information given by sailors to Captain Jones)
- Did not leave this location because of the lateness of the season
- Established Plymouth on the site of an Indian village that had been wiped out by disease
- Named after the city in England that "Launched the Mayflower"
Mayflower Compact
- Signed in 1620 on the ship
- "Civil Body Politic" would be used as a substitute for a charter for the time being (men elected a governor and made all important decisions at town meetings)
- Declared basic principles of the colony
- Colonists vowed to submit to laws established by the community
- May have been a way to keep the colonists from falling apart due to frequent arguments occurring on the ship
- Written in a matter of minutes
- Made what they were doing at Plymouth seem "more legal" to them
- Branch of Wampanoags
- Inhabited the area where the Pilgrims settled
- Decided to ally themselves with the Pilgrims because they had lost so many due to disease and needed protection against the Narragansetts
Massasoit and Squanto
- Massasoit = Leader of Pokanokets
- 1621 - Signed a treaty with the Pilgrims and began to supply them with essentials for survival
- Squanto = Pokanoket who had been captured by Europeans in the 1610s and taken to Europe, where he learned to speak English
- Returned to England to find his village wiped out by disease
- Became the Pilgrim's interpreter and provided with information about their new environment
Massachusetts Bay Company
- Formed in 1629 by a group of Congregationalist merchants
- Decided to move their headquarters to New England so that they would not have to deal with the king and his Church of England
- Being headquartered in the New World differentiated them from the Virginia Company, which was headquartered in London
John Winthrop
- 1629 - Elected as governor of Massachusetts Bay Company
- Organized first steps of Puritan migration
- Preached a sermon called "A Model of Christian Charity"
- Stressed communal nature of the mission and the idea that differences in social status did not imply differences in worth to God
- "We shall be as a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us"
Doctrine of the Covenant
- Puritans believed that God had made a covenant with them when they were chosen to be a part of the mission to move to America
- Decided to covenant with one another and promised to work as one to fulfill their goals
Communal Land Grant System
- One thing that differentiated New England from the Chesapeake
- Groups of men applied together for land grants on which they would create towns and determined together how the land would be divided
- Groups of men usually came from same parts of England and copied off of their homeland
- More land was given to most distinguished people
- Different from England because every man and even some single women received their own land
Thomas Hooker
- Directed the first English people to move to the Connecticut valley from Massachusetts Bay
- Land was separate from other towns, but the river gave them access to the ocean
- Territory was controlled by the Pequots
- Ended the Puritan's history of good relationships with natives
Pequot War
- Pequots felt that their power as trade middlemen between New England Indians and the Dutch in New Netherland was coming to an end when the English arrived with Hooker
- 2 English traders were killed (not by Pequots) and the English raided a Pequot village
- Pequots attacked Wethersfield in 1637 - Nine were killed and 2 captured
- Massachusetts Bay colony and the Narragansetts attacked and burned the main Pequot village, killing at least 400 and capturing the rest
- New England natives then began to adapt to the spread of European colonization
John Eliot
- One of the few Massachusetts Bay colonists to attempt to convert natives
- Insisted on complete cultural transformation
- Unsuccessful
Roger Williams
- Felt Puritans had no right to a) combine church and state, b) attempt to convert natives, and c) be granted land that already belonged to others
- Tried in 1635 for challenging the authority of the king's charter and believing that the colony had not separated itself enough from the corruption of England
- Convicted and banished
- Founded Providence in Rhode Island, where he established the first policy of true religious tolerance
Anne Hutchinson
- Popular medical practitioner who spread her ideas at childbirth gatherings, where only women were present
- Believed that John Cotton was right in his belief in the covenant of grace, which held that God granted salvation to unworthy humans
- Puritans liked the idea of certain salvation
- Tried for maligning the colony's ministers
- Said that she had been contacted by God, who had threatened to curse the Puritans if she was harmed in any way
- Excommunicated and exiled to Rhode Island in 1638
- Killed by Indians there a few years later