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61 Cards in this Set

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Biological Psychology
Psychology focused on the link between biology and behavior.
Neuron
a nerve cell, the basic building block of the nervous system.
Dendrite
The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
Axon
The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal
Myelin Sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
Action Potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
Threshold
The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
Synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neurons, eurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
ACh
Enables muscle action, learning and memory. Not enough marks Alzheimer's disease.
Dopamine
Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion. Excessive marks schizophrenia, lack produces Parkinson's disease.
Serotonin
Affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal. Lack linked to depression
Norepinephrine
Controls alertness and arousal also linked to depression
GABA
Major inhibitory neurotransmitter, undersupply linked to seizures, tremors and insomnia.
Glutamate
Excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory. Oversupply produces migraines or seizures.
Endorphins
Neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure.
Nervous System
The body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
CNS
brain and spinal cord
PNS
Sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body.
Nerves
Neural 'cables' containing many axons. Connect the CNS with muscles, glands and sense organs.
Sensory Neurons
Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS
Interneurons
CNS neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
Motor Neurons
Neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
Somatic Nervous System
The division of the PNS that controls the skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
Part of the PNS that controls glands and muscles of the internal organs.
Sympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving energy.
Reflex
A simple, automatic, inborn response to sensory stimulus.
Neural Networks
Interconnected neural cells. They learn.
Lesion
Tissue destruction
EEG
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. Are measured by electrodes.
CT Scan
A series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.
PET Scan
A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
MRI
A tequnique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain.
Brainstem
the oldest and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; is responsible for automatic survival functions.
Medulla
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.
Reticular formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
Thalamus
The brain's sensory switchboard, located ontop of the brainstem; directs messages to the sensory srecieving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Cerebellum
Little brain at the rear of the the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balence.
Limbic System
System of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemisphere; associated with base emotions
Amygdala
Member of limbic system and linked to emotion
Hypothalamus
A neural structure lying below the thalamus that directs maintenance activities and helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland and is linked to emotion.
Cerebral Cortex
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
Glial Cells
Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish and protect neurons
Frontal lobes
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying just below the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movement and in making plans and judgements.
Parietal Lobes
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head towards the rear. Includes sensory cortex
Occipital Lobes
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; including the visual areas, which receive visual information from opposite visual fields.
Temporal Lobes
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory information primarily from the opposite ear.
Motor Cortex
An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
Sensory Cortex
The area at the front of the parietal that registers and processes body sensations.
Association Areas
Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking.
Aphasia
Impairment of language usually caused by damage to either Broca's area (impaired speaking) or Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
Broca's Area
Controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
Wernicke's Area
Controls language receptions - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
Plasticity
The brain's capacity for modification
Corpus Callosum
The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
Split Brain
A condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers between them.
Endocrine System
The body's slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Hormones
Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands that are produced in one tissue and affect another.
Adrenal Gland
A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. The adrenal secrete the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (nonadrenaline) which helps arouse the body during times of stress
Pituitary gland
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and conttrols other endocrine system