Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/157

Click to flip

157 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hydrogen bond
The attraction between a 8+ on the hydrogen atom of polar covalent bond and a 8- on an oxygen or nitrogen atom of another polar covalent bond Hydrogen bonds are too weak to create molecules, but they can chage molecular shapes or pull molecules together.
Surface tension
acts as a barrier that keeps small objects from entering the water.
Solids
maintain their volume and their shape at ordinary temperatures and pressures.
Liquids
have a constant volume but no fixed shape. The shape of a liquid is determined by the shape of its container.
Gases
has neither a constant volume nor a fixed shape. Gases cna be compressed or expanded;unlike liquids they will fill a container of any size.
Molecular weight
The sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule
Synthesis
is the opposite of decomposition. A synthesis reaction assembles smaller molecules into larger molecules. manufacture anabolism
Dehydration synthesis/condensation
is the formation of a complex molecule by the removal of water
anabolism
The synthesis of new molecules within the body's cells and tissues
Exchange reaction
parts of the reacting molecules are shuffled around to produce new products
Reversible Reactions
Chemical reactions are reversible, so if A + B = AB
activation energy
amount of energy required to start a reaction
Enzymes
Proteins promote chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy requirements.
Chemical reaction
form between atoms or existing bonds between atoms are broken
reactants
changes occur as atoms in the reacting substances
products
rearranged to form different substances
metabolism
all of the reactions under way in the cells and tissues of the body at any given moment
Work
the movement of an object or a change in the physical structure of matter
Energy
is the capacity to perform work;movement or physical change cannot occur unless energy is provided
Kinetic energy
is the energy of motion-energy that is doing work
Potential energy
is stored energy- energy that has the potential to do work
Decomposition
is a reaction that breaks a molecule into smaller fragments
hydrolysis
one of the bonds in a complex molecule is broken, and the components of a water molecule are added to the resulting fragments
catabolism
Collectively, the decomposition reactions of complex molecules within the body's cells and tissues
catalysts
Enzymes belong to a class of substance
Exergonic
Reactions that release energy
Endergonic
more energy is required to begin the reaction than is released as it proceeds, the reaction as a whole will absorb energy
Nutrients
essential elements and molecules normally obtained from the diet
Metabolites
molecules that can be synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside our bodies
Inorganic compounds
generally do not contain carbon and hydrogen atoms as their primary structural ingredients
Organic compounds
carbon and hydrogen always form the basis
Proteins
the most abundant organic components of the human body and in many ways the most important
Support- Structural proteins
create a three-dimensional framework for the body, providing strength,organization, and support for cells, tissues and organs
Movement- Contractile proteins
responsible for muscular contraction;related proteins are responsible for the movement of individual cells
Transport
insoluble lipids, respiratory gases, special minerals such as iron, and several hormones cannot be transported in the blood
Buffering
proteins provide a considerable buffering action and thereby help prevent dangerous changes in pH in cells and tissues
Metabolic Regulation
Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions in cells
Coordination and Control
protein hormones can influence the metabolic activities of every cell in the body or affect the functgion of specific organs or organ systems
Defense
The tough, waterproof proteins of the skin, hair, and nails protect the body from environmental hazards.
amino acids
Proteins consist of long chains of organic molecules
Peptide bond
A covalent bond between the carboxylic acid group of one amino acid and the amino group of another
Peptides
Molecules consisting of amino acids held together by peptide bonds.
Polypeptides
Tripeptides and larger peptide chains
Primary structure
is the sequence of amino acids along the length of a single polypeptide
Secondary structure
results from bonds between atoms at different parts fo the polypeptide chain.
Tertiary structure
is the complex coiling and folding that gives a protein its final three-dimensional shape
Quaternary structure
is the interaction between individual polypeptide chains to form a protein complex
Fibrous proteins
form extended sheets or strands
Globular proteins
are compact, generally rounded, and readily enter an aqueoud solution
Substrates
Reactants in enzymatic reactons
Active site
A groove or pocket into which one or more substrates nestle.
specificity
Each enzyme catalyzes only one type of reaction
isozymes
Different tissues typically contain enzymes that differ slightly in structure, but catalyze the same reaction
Saturated
Enzyme that has reached its saturation limit
Cofactor
is an ion or a molecule that must bind to the enzyme before substrates can also bind
coenzymes
nonprotein organic molecules that function as cofactors
denaturation
change in tertiary or quaternary structure that makes it nonfunctional.
glycoproteins/proteoglycans
combinations of protein and carbohydrate molecules
mucus
Coats the surfacesw of the respiratory adn digestive tracts, providing lubrication
Nucleic acids
large organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
deoxyribonucleic acid
two classes of nucleic acid molecules
chemistry
the science that deals with the structure of matter
atoms
smallest stable units of matter
subatomic particles
atoms are composed of subatomic particles and only 3 are important, the chemical propertiesof matter: protons, neutrons, and electrons
protons
(p+) bear a positive electrical charge
neutrons
(n or n') are electrically neutral, or uncharged.
electrons
(e-) are much lighter than protons-only 1/1836 as massive-and bear a negative electrical charge.
atomic number
the number of protons in an atom
hydrogen (H)
the simplest atom, with an atomic number of 1. Contains 1 proton and 1 electron
electron cloud
electrons orbit the nucleus at high speed forming a spherical electron cloud.
electron shell
electron tends to remain in its electron shell because the negatively charged electron is attracted to the positively charged proton.
electrical force
the attraction between opposite electrical charges.
nanometers (nm)
atoms are so small that atomic measurements are most conveniently reported in nm
elements
all the atoms with the same atomic number (2)
trace elements
human body contains atoms of another 13 elements-that are present in very small amounts
isotopes
atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons
mass number
the total number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus-used to designate isotopes
deuterium
hydrogen-2 one proton, one electron and one neutron
tritium
hydrogen-3 one proton, one elecron, and 2 neutrons
radioisotopes
isotopes spontaneously emit subatomic particles or radiation in measurable amounts
radioactive decay
emission process of radioisotopes
half-life
the time required for half of a given amount of the isotope to decay
oxygen atom
has an atomic number of 8, contains 8 protons and 8 neutrons. mass number of this isotope is 16
atomic weight
the actual mass of an atom
dalton
unit used to express atomic weight
mole
a quantity with a weight in grams equal to that element's atomic weight
energy levels
within the electron cloud, elecrons occupy an orderly series
lithium
an atom that has three electrons
reactive
elements with unfilled outermost energy levels, such as hydrogen and lithium
chemical bonds
holds the participating atoms together once the reaction has ended
molecule
any chemical structure consisting of atoms held together by covalent bonds
compound
any chemical substance made up of atoms fo two or more elements, regardless of the type of bond joining them, not all molecules are compounds
Ions
atoms or molecules that carry an electric charge, either positive or negative
cations
ions with a positive charge
anions
ions with a negative charge
Ionic bonds
chemical bonds created by the elecrical attraction between anions and cations
sodium ion
with a charge of +1
chloride ion
with a charge of -1
sodium chloride
the combination of oppositely charged ions forms an ionic compound--this case sodium chloride
covalent bonds
a chemical bond between atoms that involves the sharing of electrons
single covalent bond
sharing of one pair of electrons
double covalent bond
sharing two pairs of electrons
carbon dioxide
a compound produced by the decarboxylation reactions of aerobic metabolism
nonpolar covalent bonds
equal sharing of electrons- between two atoms of the same type-bonds are very common
polar covalent bond
unequal sharing of electrons
hydrogen bond
weak-the attraction between a___ on the hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond and a ____ on an oxygen or nitrogen atom of another polar covalent bond
surface tension
acts as a barrier that keeps small objects from entering the water
solids
maintain their volume and their shape at ordinary temps and pressures.
liquids
have a constant volume, but no fixed shape of its container
gas
has neither a constant volume nor a fixed shape- gases can be compressed or expanded
molecular weight
the sum of the atomic weights of its component atoms
solution
individual molecules become distributed within the water
solvent
the medium in which other atoms, ions, or molecules are dispersed
solutes
dispersed substances
electrolytes
soluble inorganic molecules whose ions will conduct an electrical current in solution
hydrophilic
freely associating with water; readily entering into solution
hydrophobic
incapable of freely associating with water molecules; insoluble
colloid
a soluion containing dispersed proteins or other large molecules
pH
the negative exponent of the hydrogen ion concentration, expressed in moles per litre
neutral
a solution with a pH 7, contains equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions
acidic
a solution with a pH below 7, contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
basic
a pH above 7, has more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
acid
any solute that dissociates in solution and releases hydrogen ions, thereby lowering the pH
base
a solute that removes hydrogen ions from a solution and thereby acts as a proton accceptor
salt
an ionic compound consisting of any cation except a hydrogen ion and any anion except a hydroxide ion
buffers
compounds that stabilize the pH of a solution by removing or replacing hydrogen ions
carbohydrate
an organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio near 1:2:1
monosaccharide (simple sugar)
a carbohydrate containing from 3 to 7 carbon atoms
glucose
most important metabolic "fuel" in the body
isomers
molecules - same types and numbers of atoms--but different structures
disaccharide
complex molecules composed of 2 monocaccharide building blocks joined together
carbohydrate
an organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio near 1:2:1
monosaccharide (simple sugar)
a carbohydrate containing from 3 to 7 carbon atoms
glucose
most important metabolic "fuel" in the body
isomers
molecules - same types and numbers of atoms--but different structures
disaccharide
a compound formed by the joining of 2 smple sugars by dehydration synthesis
polysaccharides
a complex sugar, such as glycogen or a starch
glycogen
a polysaccharide that is an important energy reserve; a polymer consisting of a long chain of glucose molecules
lipids
an organic compound containing carbons, hydrogens, and oxygens in a ratio that does not approximate 1:2:1; includes fats, oils, and waxes
fatty acids
hydrocarbon chains that end in a carboxylic acid group
eicosanoids
lipids derived from a fatty acid that must be absorbed in the diet because it cannot be synthesized by the body
polysaccharides
a complex sugar, such as glycogen or a starch
glycogen
a polysaccharide that is an important energy reserve; a polymer consisting of a long chain of glucose molecules
lipids
an organic compound containing carbons, hydrogens, and oxygens in a ratio that does not approximate 1:2:1; includes fats, oils, and waxes
fatty acids
hydrocarbon chains that end in a carboxylic acid group
eicosanoids
lipids derived from a fatty acid that must be absorbed in the diet because it cannot be synthesized by the body
prostaglandins
a fatty acid secreted by one cell that alters the metabolic activities or sensitivities of adjacent cells; also called local hormone
glycerol
a compound
glycerides
lipids composed of glycerol bound to fatty acids
monoglyceride
a lipid consisting of a single fatty acid bound to a molecule of glycerol
diglyceride
glycerol + two fatty acids
triglyceride
glycerol + three fatty acids
steroids
large lipid molecules that share a distinctive carbon framework
a ring-shaped lipid structurally related to cholesterol
cholesterol
a steroid component of cell membranes and a substrate for the synthesis of steroid hormones and bile salts
phospholipid
an important membrane lipid whose structure includes both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions
glycolipids
compounds created by the combination of carbohydrate and lipid components
metabolic turnover
The continuous removal and replacement of cellular organic molecules,allows cells to change and to adapt to chnges in their environment