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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
di
two
disaccharide
a compound whose molecules are composed of two joined saccharide units
glyc
sweet
glycogen
a complex carbohydrates, composed of many joined sugar molecules
lip
fat
lipids
a group of organic compounds that include fats
lyt
dissolvable
electrolyte
a substance that dissolves in water and releases ions
mono
one
monosaccharide
a compound whose molecules consist of a single saccharide unit
poly
many
polyunsaturated
a molecule with many double bonds between its carbon atoms
sacchar
sugar
monosaccharide
a sugar molecule composed of a single saccharide unit
syn
together
synthesis
a process by which chemicals join to form new types of chemicals
chemistry
branch of science that considers the composition of matter and how this composition changes
matter
anything that has weight and take up space
elements
basic unit of matter - pure chemical substance with only one type of atom
atom
smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element
nucleus
central core of an atom, which is composed of protons and neutrons
electrons
small, negatively charged particle that revolves around the nucleus of an atom
proton
positively charged particle in atomic nucleus
neutron
electrically neutral particle in atomic nucleus
atomic number
number of protons in an atom of an element
atomic weight
number approximately equal to the number of protons, plus number of neutrons in an atom of an element
isotope
Atom that has the same number of protons as other atoms of an element but has a different number of neutrons
ion
atom or molecule with electrical charge
ionic bond
chemical bond form between two ions by transfer of electrons
covalent bond
chemical bond formed by electron sharing bet atoms
molecule
particle composed of two or more joint atoms
compounds
substance composed of two or more chemically bonded elements
molecular formula
abbreviation for the number of atoms of each element in a compound
structural formulas
representation of the way atoms bond to form a molecule, using symbols for each element and lines to indicate chemical bonds
synthesis
building large molecules from smaller ones that join
decomposition
breakdown of molecules into simpler compounds
exchange reaction
chemical reaction in which parts of two kinds of molecules trade positions
reversible reaction
chemical reaction in which and products can change back into reactants
catalyst
chemical that increases the rate of the chemical reactions, but is not permanently altered by that reactions
acids
substance that ionizes in water to release hydrogen ions
base
substance that ionizes in water to release hydroxyl ions or other ions that combine with hydrogen ions
pH
the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration used to indicate the acidic or alkaline condition of the solution; values ranged from zero to 14
organic
carbon-containing molecules
(contained both carbon and hydrogen atoms)
inorganic
chemical substances that lack carbon and hydrogen
inorganic substances common in body fluids
water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and in organic salts
carbohydrate
organic compounds that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in a on 1:2:1 ratio
sugars
carbohydrates with short chain
monosaccharide
simple sugar, such as glucose or for those -- building block of more complex carbohydrates, molecules
disaccharide
sugar produced by the union of two monosaccharides
polysaccharide
carbohydrate composed of many joined monosaccharides
fatty acid
building block of a fat molecule
glycerol
organic compound that is a building block for fat molecules (each glycerol molecule combines with three fatty acid molecules to produce a single fat)
triglyceride
lipid composed of three fatty acids, combined with a glycerol molecule
phospholipid
lipid that contains two fatty acid molecules and a phosphate group, combined with a glycerol molecule
steroid
type of organic molecule including rings of carbon and hydrogen atoms (complex structures that include four connected rings -- cholesterol)
protein
nitrogen-containing organic compounds of joined amino acid molecules - serve as structural materials, energy sources, and hormones
enzymes
protein that catalyzes a specific biochemical reaction (speed chemical reactions without being consumed by these reactions)
amino acids
small organic compound that contains an amino group(-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH); structural unit of a protein molecule
hydrogen bond
weak chemical bond between a hydrogen atom and a nitrogen or oxygen atom, sharing with other nearby nitrogen or oxygen atom
nucleic acid
substance composed of bonded nucleotides; RNA or DNA
nucleotide
building block of nucleic acid molecule, consisting of a sugar, and nitrogenus base, and a phosphate group
RNA
ribonucleic acid; nucleic acid, whose nucleotides containing ribose
ribose
five-carbon sugar in RNA
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; genetic material; double-stranded polymer of nucleotide, each containing a phosphate group, a nitrogenus base and the sugar deoxyribose
nitrogenus base
adenine, thiamine, guanine or cytosine