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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bimodal distribution
a distribution of data points in which two values occur more frequently than the rest of the values in the data set
a graphical EDA technique used to highlight the center and extremes of a data set
Chebyshev's Theorem
no matter what the shape of a distribution, at least 75 percent of the values in the population will fall within 2 standard deviations of the mean and at least 80 percent will fall within 3 standard deviations
a method of calculating the mean for grouped data by recording values of class midpoints to more simple values
coefficient of variation
a relative measure of dispersion, comparable across distributions, that expresses the standard deviation as a percentage of the mean
fractiles that divide the data into 10 equal parts
the spread of variability in a set of data
distance measure
a measure of dispersion in terms of the difference between two values in the data set
exploratory data analysis (EDA)
methods for analyzing data that require very few prior assumptions
in a frequency distribution, the location of a value at or above a given fraction of the data
geometric mean
a measure of central tendency used to measure the average rate of change or growth for some quantity, computed by taking the Nth root of the product of N values representing change
interfractile range
a measure of the spread between two fractiles in a distribution, that is, the difference between the values of two fractiles
interquartile range
the difference between the values of the first and the third quartiles; this difference indicates the range of the middle half of the data set
the degree of peakedness of a distribution of points
a central tendency measure representing the arithmetic average of a set of observations
measure of central tendency
a measure indicating the value to be expected of a typical or middle data point
measure of dispersion
a measure describing how the observations in a data set are scattered or spread out
the middle point of a data set, a measure of location that divides the data set into two halves
median class
the class in a frequency distribution that contains the median value for a data set
the value most often repeated in the data set, represented by the highest point in the distribution curve of a data set
numerical values that describe the characteristics of a whole population, commonly represented by Greek letters
fractiles that divide the data into 100 equal parts
fractiles that divide the data into four equal parts
the distance between the highest and the lowest values in a data set
the extent to which a distribution of data points is concentrated at one end or the other; the lack of symmetry
standard deviation
the positive square root of the variance; a measure of dispersion in the same units as the original data, rather than in the squared units of the variance
standard score
expressing an observation in terms of standard deviation units above or below the mean; that is, the transformation of an observation by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard deviation
numerical measures describing the characteristics of a samle, represented by Roman letters
Stem and Leaf Display
a histogram-like display used in EDA to group data, while still displaying all the original values
Summary Statistics
single numbers that describe certain characteristics of a data set
a characteristic of a distribution in which each half is the mirror image of the other half
a measure of the average squared distance between the mean and each item in the population
weighted mean
an average calculated to take into account the importance of each value to the overall total, that is, an average in which each observation is weighted by some index of its importance