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24 Cards in this Set

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atom
smallest particle of elem.
isotopes
same element have same # of p's but differing #'s of neutrons
radioisotopes
unstable, release energy as they become stable
ion
atom or group of atoms that have lost or gaine e-'s through bonding (ex. Na+ or HCO3-)
ionic (electrovalent) bond
formed when e-'s are transferred from one atom to antoher (ex. NaCl)
covalent bond
formed when electrons shared by atoms (ex. C6H12O6)
molecule
particle formed by bond 2 or more atoms
compound
molecule with 2 or more types of atoms
isomers
2 or more compounds with same molecular formula but different structural formula (ex. sucrose, maltose, lactose- all C12H22O11)
electrolyte
substance that releases ions in water
inorganic substances
usu. dissolve in water to form electrolytes
carbohydrates- function
provide energy;structural component
carb- elements
C. H. O. (H:O ratio same as water)
carb- building block
monnosacchardies
carb- forms
mon. (glucose, fructose, galactose); di. (sucrose, lactose, maltose); and poly. (starch, glycogen, cellulose)
carb-source
fruits, vegetables, meats
lipids- function
reserve energy, protection, struct. component
lipids- elements
C H O (few O compared to H)
lipids- building blocks
fatty acids + glycerol
lipids- forms
saturated (single C bonds; usu. animal origin); unsaturated ( 1 double bonds);
Polyunsat. ( many double C bonds; usu. plant origin and liquid at room temp.)
lipids- source
fats, oils, waxes
protein- function
meabolism, primary struct. component, anitbodies, hormones, energy source
protein- elements
C H O N
denaturation
extreme temp. radiation, pH, or certain chemicals destroy hydrogen bonds; renders protein useless