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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
substances that cannot be broken down into other kinds of substances by ordinary chemical reactions
chemical elements
smallest unit of an element that retains all of the element's properties
central part of atom, consisting of one or more protons and neutrons
number of protons in the nucleus; determines element of atom
atomic number
number of protons and neutrons
atomic mass
atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons and atomic mass
area in which electrons move at specific distances from the nucleus
electron shell
a link between 2 atoms that share a pair of electrons so that each atom has a stable, complete outer energy shell
covalent bond
a strong electrical attraction between a positively charged ion and a negatively charged ion
ionic bond
how strongly the atom attracts electrons
a stable structure made up of 2 or more atoms that are joined by covalent bonds and so have stable, filled outer shells
electrically asymmetrical covalent bond
polar covalent bond
a weak to often transient elctrical attraction between 2 atoms bearing opposite partial electrical charges
hydrogen bond
shorthand way to show the kinds and numbers of atoms in a molecule, using symbols for elements
molecular formula
show arrangements of atoms and bonds as well as numbers and kinds of atoms
structural formula
consists of a solvent and solute
substance doing dissolving, usually water
substance being dissolved
proportion of one substance found in the total of a mixture of two or more substances
process whereby molecules of two or more substances move about and become evenlly mixed
the change in concentration of a substance over a distance
concentration gradient
energy input required before a chemical reactin can proceed
activation energy
starting materials
ending materials
holding of different substances to each other
holding together of like substances
results from the cohesion of water molecules to one another by their hydrogen bonds
surface tension
movementof fluid into a narrow space because of attraction of the walls of the space for the moecules of the fluid
capillary action
takes a lot of heat to raise the temperature of water and much heat to be lost to lower temperature
thermal capacity
to come apart
substance that releases hydroxide ions in water or one that accepts hydrogen
base (alkali)
substance in which the hydrogen of an acid has been replaced by another positively charged ion
measure of the concentraion of hydrogen
substances that tend to keep the pH constant by taking up or releasing hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions