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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
hypothesis
a possible explanation for a natural event.
experiment
conducting a process to test a hypothesis; making further observations.
deductive reasoning
"if, then logic"; used in the experiment process.
experimental design
the manner in which a scientist intends to conduct an experiment.
control group/ control
the object being tested that goes through all the steps of the experiment, but lacks the factor being tested.
model
representation of an actual object.
data
results of an experiment.
conclusion
statement made following an experiment as to wether or not the results support the hypothesis.
scientific theories
concepts that join together well-supported and related hypthesis.
principle(law)
a term sometimes used for theories that are generally accepted bby an overwhelming # of scientists.
experiment(independant) variable
the compnent being tested.
dependant variable
result or change that occurs when an experimental variable is utilized in an experiment.
matter
anything that takes up space and has mass (solid, liquid, gas).
elements
substance that cannot be broken down into substances with different properties; composed of only one type of atom.
atoms
smallest particle of an element that displays the properties of the element.
atomic symbol
1 or 2 letters that represent the name of an element.
mass number
sum of protons and neutrons.
atomic number
# of protons within the necleus of an atom.
isotope
an atom of the same element having the same atomic #, but a different mass # due to the number of neutrons.
orbital
particular volume of space where an electron is most apt to be found most of the time.
octet rule
outer shell of electrons is most stable when it has 8 electrons.
compound
the product of 2/more different elements bonding together.
molecule
the smallest part of a compound that still has the properties of that compound.
ionic bond
attraction between negatively and positively charged ions.(chemical bond)
covalent bond
chemical bond in which atoms share one pair of electrons.
nonpolar covalent bond
bond in which the sharing of electrons between atoms is fairly equal.
polar covalent bond
bond in which sharing electrons between atoms is unequal.
characteristics of water
high heat capacity. high heat evaporization. solvent. cohesive & adhesive. high surface tension. frozen water is less dense than liquid.
hydrophilic
molecules that can attract water.
hydrophobic
nonpolar molecules that cannot attract water.
solution
fluid(the solvent) that contains a dissolved solid(the solute).
solute
substance that is dissolves in solvent forming a solution.
hydrogen ion
hydrogen ion that has lost its electron and therefore bears a positive charge.
hydroxide ion
hydrogen and oxygen compound that has gained an electron therefore bears a negative charge.
acid
molecules tending to raise the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution & to lower its pH numerically.
base
molecules tending to lower the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution & raise its pH numerically.
pH scale
measurement scale for hydrogen ion concentration.
buffers
substance/group of substances that tend to resist pH changes of a solution, thus stabilizing its relative acidity & basicity.
electronegativity
the ability of an atom to attract electrons toward itself in a chemical bond.
tracer
substance having an attached radioactive isotope that allows a researcher to track its where abouts in a biological system.
organic chemistry
chemistry of organisms.
inorganic chemistry
chemistry of the nonliving world.
organic molecules
molecules that contain both carbon and hydrogen atoms.
functional group
specific combination of bonded atom that always react in the same way, regardless of the particular carbon skeleton.
isomer
molecule with the same molecular formula but a different structure and therefore a different shape.
polymer
macromolecule consisting of covalently bonded monomers.
monomers
small molecule that is a subunit of a polymer. example: glucose is a monomer of starch.
dehydration reaction
chemical reaction resulting in a covalent bond with the accompanying loss of a water molecule.
enzyme
organic catalyst usually a protein that speeds a reaction in cells due to a particular shape.
carbohydrates
class of organic compounds that includes monosaccharides, disaccharides, & polysaccharides.
monosaccharides
simple sugar; a carbohydrate that cannot be decomposed by by hydrolysis.
disaccharides
sugar that contains 2 units of a monosaccharide. example: maltose.
polysaccharides
polymer made from sugar monomers; the polysaccharides starch & glycogen are polymers of glucose monomers.
hydrolysis reaction
splitting of a compound by the addition of water, w/ the H+ being incorporated in one fragment & the OH- in the other.
glucose
6 carbon sugar that organisms degrade as a source of energy during cellular respiration.
ribose
a pentose sugar found in RNA.
deoxyribose
pentose sugar found in DNA that has one less hydroxyl group than ribose.
starch
storage polymer polysaccharide found in plants that is composed of glucose molecules in a linear with few side chains.
glycogen
storge polysaccharide found in animals; composed of glucose molecules joined in a linear fashion but having numerous branches
cellulose
polysaccharide that is the major complex carbohydrate in plant cell walls
chitin
stong, flexible nitrogenous polysaccharide found in the exoskeleton in bugs.
lipid
compounds that are insoluable in water due to their hydrocarbon chains, include fat and oils.
glycerols
3 carbon carbohydrate w/ 3 hydroxyl groups attached; a component of fats & oils.
fat
organic molecule that contains glycerol and fatty acids and is found in adipose tissue of vertebrates.
oil
triglyceride usually plant orgin that is composed of glycerol & 3 fatty acids & is liquid in consistancy due to many unsaturated bonds in the hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids.
triglyceride
natural fat composed of glycerol & 3 fatty acids.
fatty acid
molecule that contains a hydrocarbon chain & ends with an acid group.
saturated fatty acids
fatty acid molecule that lack double bonds between the carbons of its hydrocarbon chain. The chain bears the maximum # of hydrogens possible.
unsaturated fatty acid
fatty acid molecule that has 1/ more double bonds between the carbons of its hydrocarbon chains. The chain bears fewer hydrogen than the maximum # possible.
phospholipid
molecule that forms the phospholipid bilayer of plasma membranes has polar, hydrophilic head bonded to 2 nonpolar, hydrophobic tails.
steroid
type of lipid molecule having a complex of 4 carbon rings. example; cholestrol, estrogen, progesteron, and testosterone.
waxes
sticky solid, waterproof, lipid consisting of many lon-chain fatty acid usually linked to long-chain alcohols.
types of proteins
suppor, enzymes, transport. defense, hormones, motion.
proteins
molecule consisting of 1/more polypeptides.
hemoglobin
iron-containing respiratory pigment occuring in vertebrate red blood cells in the blood plasma of some invertebrates.
amino acid
organic molecule composed of an amino group and an acid group; covalently bonds to produce peptide molecules.
peptide bond
type of covalent bond that joins 2 amino acids
peptide
2/more amino acids joined together by a covalent bond.
polypeptide
polymer of many amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
fibrous proteins
a structural protein that exist as helices/ pleated sheets that hydrogen bond to each other.
globualr proteins
proteins that tend to ball up in to rounded shape & have a tertiary structure.
denature
loss of an enzymes normal shape so that it no longer functions; caused by a less than optimal pH & temp.
chaperones
molecule that binds to a protein during synthesis and keeps it from making incorrect interactions.
nucleic acid
polymers of nucleotides wiht very specific function in cells.
DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid)
genetic material that stores info regarding its own replication & the order in which amino acids are to be joined to make a protein.
RNA(ribonucleic acid)
nucleic acid produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar ribose; occurs in 3 forms: mRNA, rRNA, tRNA (messenger, ribosomal, transfer).
coenzymes
nonprotein organic molecule that aids the action of the enzyme to which it is loosely bound.
ATP(adenosine triphosphate)
nucleotide w/ 3 phosphate groups. the breakdown of ATP in to ADP + P makes energy available for energy requiring processes in cells.
nucleotide
monomer of DNA & RNA consisting of a pentose bonded to a nitrogenous base & a phosphate group.
complementary base pairing
Hydrogen bonding b/w particular purines & pyrimidines in DNA.
ADP(adinosine diphosphate)
nucleotide w/ 2 phosphate groups that can accept another phosphate group & become ATP.