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14 Cards in this Set

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Taxonomy is the branch of biology that names and groups organisms according to their
A. characteristics and behavior.
B. evolutionary history and behavior.
C. characteristics and evolutionary history.
D. behavior and geographic location.
C. characteristics and evolutionary history. -Taxonomy involves grouping organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history. Taxonomy does group organisms according to their characteristics, but not according to their behavior. Taxonomy does group organisms according to their evolutionary history, but not according to their behavior. Taxonomy does not group organisms according to either their behavior or their geographic location.
Which of the following statements is false?
A. Aristotle developed the first system for classifying organisms.
B. Aristotle sorted plants into three categories.
C. Aristotle sorted animals into two categories: land dwellers and water dwellers.
D. By the sixteenth century, Aristotle's system of classification was no longer adequate.
C. Aristotle sorted animals into two categories: land dwellers and water dwellers. -Aristotle sorted animals into three categories, including land dwellers, water dwellers, and air dwellers. Over 2,000 years ago this Greek philosopher did develop the first classification system. Aristotle grouped plants into three categories based on differences in their stems. In a period of rapid scientific exploration, many new organisms were discovered, and biologists realized Aristotle's categories were not adequate.
Which of the following was not one of the problems with Aristotle’s classification system?
A. Aristotle's categories were inadequate.
B. Common names for organisms varied around the world.
C. Common names did not always accurately describe a species.
D. Aristotle's long, descriptive Latin names were difficult to remember.
D. Aristotle's long, descriptive Latin names were difficult to remember. -The long, descriptive Latin names were not part of Aristotle's system. A system based solely on plants and animals did prove inadequate.
Because common names varied around the world, it was difficult for scientists from different countries to communicate about organisms. The names commonly given to organisms were sometimes inaccurate, such as the name jellyfish for an organism that is not a fish.
According to Carolus Linnaeus’s organizational hierarchy, an organism can be classified as belonging to a
A. phylum composed of kingdoms, a kingdom composed of species, a species composed of genera, a genus composed of orders, an order composed of families, and a family composed of classes.
B. family composed of classes, a class composed of species, a species composed of kingdoms, a kingdom composed of orders, an order composed of genera, and a genus composed of phyla.
C. genus composed of classes, a class composed of phyla, a phylum composed of orders, an order composed of species, a species composed of families, and a family composed of kingdoms.
D. kingdom composed of phyla, a phylum composed of classes, a class composed of orders, an order composed of families, a family composed of genera, and a genus composed of species.
D. kingdom composed of phyla, a phylum composed of classes, a class composed of orders, an order composed of families, a family composed of genera, and a genus composed of species. -This organization shows the correct relationship between the seven levels of classification.
Carolus Linnaeus’s system
A. classifies organisms based largely on their behavior.
B. provides a species name and a species identifier for every organism.
C. uses binomial nomenclature.
D. was developed in the 1800s.
C. uses binomial nomenclature. -Carolus Linnaeus's system uses two-part names in a system known as binomial nomenclature.
According to Carolus Linnaeus’s system for writing a scientific name,
A. the first letter of the genus name and the first letter of the species name must be capitalized.
B. both words must be italicized or underlined.
C. most scientific names are usually made up of Roman words.
D. scientific names usually have no real meaning.
B. both words must be italicized or underlined.
Which of the following statements is true?
A. Carolus Linnaeus's system is still used today exactly as it was when he first developed it.
B. Carolus Linnaeus's seven levels of classification have proved adequate for classifying all organisms so far.
C. Modern taxonomists use morphology to classify living things.
D. Carolus Linnaeus's classification technique was influenced by genetic factors.
D. Carolus Linnaeus's classification technique was influenced by genetic factors.
When taxonomists classify organisms, they rely on
A. chromosomal characteristics.
B. nucleotide and amino acid sequences.
C. embryological development.
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
A phylogenetic tree does not show
A. geographical relationships thought to exist between groups of organisms.
B. evolutionary relationships thought to exist between groups of organisms.
C. evidence drawn from the morphology of living organisms.
D. evidence drawn from patterns of embryological development.
A. geographical relationships thought to exist between groups of organisms. -While geography may be considered when building a phylogenetic tree, the focus of a phylogenetic tree is on evolutionary relationships.
Which of the following types of evidence provides clues to evolutionary relationships?
A. embryological development and chromosomal characteristics, but not the fossil record
B. chromosomal characteristics and the fossil record, but not embryological development
C. the fossil record and embryological development, but not chromosomal characteristics
D. embryological development, chromosomal characteristics, and the fossil record
D. embryological development, chromosomal characteristics, and the fossil record -Embryological development, chromosomal characteristics, the fossil record, and morphology are the four primary types of evidence that systematic taxonomists use.
Scientists who study morphology must be able to distinguish between homologous features and ____________ features.
A. systematic
B. analogous
C. embryological
D. chromosomal
B. analogous -It is important for scientists to avoid classifying organisms according to features that seem to be homologous but are really analogous.
When the early embryo of a vertebrate splits in half, each half becomes an individual. When the early embryo of a fruit fly (phylum Arthropoda) splits in half,
A. the two halves become individuals.
B. the two halves die.
C. at least one half will survive to become an individual.
D. a different species of fruit fly develops.
B. the two halves die. -Each part of the fruit fly is already committed to becoming a certain part of the organism when the early embryo splits. Thus, splitting the embryo will cause the two halves to die.
The molecular-clock model
A. evaluates amino-acid sequences and karyotypes.
B. is very reliable.
C. estimates degrees of relatedness between different species.
D. suggests that the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees lived 25 million years ago
C. estimates degrees of relatedness between different species.
Cladistics uses certain features, called shared derived features, to establish evolutionary relationships. From a cladistic point of view, which of the following statements is false?
A. Birds, crocodiles, and dinosaurs are more closely related to each other than any one of them is to a snake or lizard.
B. Snakes, lizards, and crocodiles are related to each other, and birds are in their own, different group.
C. All reptiles did not come from one common ancestor.
D. A cladogram is used to show evolutionary relationships.
B. Snakes, lizards, and crocodiles are related to each other, and birds are in their own, different group. -This statement is false from a cladistic point of view. It describes the conclusion of a systematic classification, not a cladistic one.