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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
one gene- one polypeptide hypothesis
the premise that a gene is a segment of DNA that codes for one polypeptide
the synthesis of RNA or DNA template
messenger RNA (mRNA)
a type of RNA synthesized from DNA that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primar structure of a protein
the synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic info encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids
RNA processing
modification of RNA before it leaves the nucleus, a process unique in eukaryotes
primary transcript
an initial RNA transcript also called pre-mRNA
triplet code
a set of 3 nucleotide long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chain
template strand
the DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript
reading frame
the way a cell's mRNA-translating machinary groups the mRNA nucleotides into codons
RNA polymerase
an enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription
RNA polymerase
an enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription
a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerarse and indicates where to start transcribing RNA
a special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which then departs from the gene
transcription unit
the stretch of DNA that is transcribed into an RNA molecule
transcription factor
a regulatory protein that binds to DNA and stimulates transcriptioin of specific genes
transcription inhbition complex
the completed assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase bound to the promoter
TATA box
a promoter DNA sequence crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex
5' cap
the 5' end of a pre-mRNA molecule modified by the addition of a cap of guanine nucleotide
transfer RNA (tRNA)
an RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein languange by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropraite codons in the mRNA
the modified end of the 3' end of an mRNA molecule consisting of the addition of some 50 to 250 adenine nucleotides
RNA splicing
the removal of noncoding protions (introns) of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis
a noncoding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene
a coding region of a eukaryotic gene that are expressed, and speparted from each other by introns
a complex assembly that interacts with the ends of an RNA intron in splicing RNA, releasing the intron and joining the two adjacent exons
an enzymatic RNA molecule that catalyzes reations during RNA splicing
alternative RNA splicing
a type of reglation at the RNA processing level where different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns
proteins modular architecture consisting of discrete structural and functional regions
a specialized base triplet at 1 end of a tRNA molecules that reconizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule
a violation of the base pairing rules in that the 3rd nucleotide (5' end) of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the 3rd position (3' end) of a codon
aminoacl tRNA synthetase
an enzyme that joins each amino acid to the correct tRNA
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
the most abundant type of RNA, which together with proteins, forms the structure of ribosomes. ribosomes coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to mRNA codons
A site
1 of 3 binding sites for tRNA during translation, it holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain; stands for aminoacyl-tRNA site
P site
1 of 3 binding sites for tRNA during translation, it holdes the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain; stands for peptidyl tRNA site
E site
1 of 3 binding sites for tRNA during translation, it is the place where discharaged tRNAs leave the ribosome; exit site
an aggregation of several ribosomes attached to 1 messenger RNA molecule
single peptide
marks the polypeptides of proteins destined for the endomembrane system or for secretion
signal recognition particle (SRP)
a protein RNA complex that recognizes a signal peptide as it emerges from the ribosome
point mutations
a change in a gene at a single nucleotide pair
base pair substitution
a point mutation; the replacement of 1 nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides
missense mutations
the most common type of mutation, a base pair substitution where the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid
nonsense mutations
a mutation that changes an amino acid codon to 1 of the 3 stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein
a mutation involving the addition of 1 or more nucleotide pairs to a gene
a mutational loss of1 or more nucleotide pairs from a gene
frameshift mutation
a mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted its not a multiple of 3, resulting in the improer grouping of the following nucleotides into codons
a chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation