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194 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anterior chamber
Area behind the cornea and in front of the lens and iris. It contains aqueous humor
aqueous humor
fluid produced by the ciliary body and found in the anterior chamber
biconvex
having two sides that are rounded, elevated, and curved evenly, like part of a sphere. The lens of the eye is a biconves body
choroid
middle, vascular layer of the eye, between the tetina and the sclera
ciliary body
structure on each side of the lens that connects the choroid and iris. It contains ciliary muscles, which control the shape of the lens, and it secretes aqueous humor
cone
photoreceptor cell in the retina that transforms light energy into a nerve impulse. Cones are responsible for color and central vision
conjunctiva
delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior eyeball
cornea
fibrous transparent layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball
fovea centralis
tiny pit or depression in the retina that is the region of clearest vision
fundus of the eye
posterior, inner part of the eye
lens
transparent, biconves body behind the pupil of the eye. It bends (refracts) light rays to bring them into focus on the retina
macula
yellowish region on the retina lateral to and slightly below the optic disc: contains the fovea centralis, which is the center depression containing only cone photoreceptors
optic chiasm
point at which the fibers of the optic nerve cross in the brain (chiasm means crossing)
optic disc
region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina. It is the blind spot of the eye because it contains only nerve fibers, no rods or cones, and is thus insensitive to light
optic nerve
cranial nerve carrying impulses from the retina to the brain (cerebral cortex)
pupil
dark opeining of the eye, surrounded by the iris, through which light rays pass
refraction
bending of light rays by the cornea, lens, and fluids of the eye to bring the rays into focus on the retina. Refract means to break (-fract) back (re-)
retina
light-sensitive nerve cell layer of the eye containing photoreceptor cells (rods and cones)
rod
photocepter cell of the retina essential for vision in dim light and for peripheral vision
sclera
tough, white, outer coat of the eyeball
vitreous humor
soft, jelly-like material behind the lens; helps maintain the shape of the eyeball
aque/o
water
blephar/o
eyelid (see also paplebr/o
conjunctiv/o
conjunctiva
cor/o
pupil (see also pupill/o)
corne/o
cornea (see also kerat/o)
cycl/o
ciliary body or muscle of the eye
dacr/o
tears, tear duct (see also lacrim/o
ir/o
irid/o
iris (colored portion of the eye around the pupil
kerat/o
cornea
lacrim/o
tears
ocul/o
eye
ophthalm/o
eye
opt/o
optic/o
eye, vision
palpebr/o
eyelid
papill/o
optic disc (disk); nipple-like
phac/o
phak/o
lens of the eye
pupill/o
pupil
retin/o
retina
scler/o
sclera (white of the eye)
uve/o
uvea; vascular layer of the eye (iris, ciliary body, and choroid)
vitre/o
glassy
ambly/o
dull, dim
dipl/o
double
glauc/o
gray
mi/o
smaller, less
mydr/o
widen, enlarge
nyct/o
night
phot/o
light
presby/o
old age
scot/o
darkness
xer/o
dry
-opia
vision
-opsia
vision
-tropia
to turn
astigmatism
defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye
hyperopia (hypermetropia)
farsightedness
myopia
nearsightedness
presbyopia
impairment of vision as a result of old age
cataract
clouding of the lens, causing decreased vision
chalazion
small, hard, cystic mass (granuloma) on the eyelid; formed as a result of chronic inflammation of a sebaceous gland (meibomian gland) along the margin of the eyelid
diabetic retinopathy
retinal effects of diabetes mellitus include microaneurysms, hemorrhages, dialation of retinal veins, and neovascularization (new blodd vessels from in the retina)
glaucoma
increased intraocular pressure results in damage to the retina and optic nerve
hordeolum (stye)
localized, purulent, inflammatory staphyloccal infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid
macular degeneration
progressive damage to the macula of the retina
retinal detachment
two layers of the retina separate from each other
strabismus
abnormal deviation of the eye
fluorescein angiography
intravenous injection of fluorescein (a dye) followed by serial photographs of the retina through dialted pupils
ophthalmoscopy
visual examination of the interior of the eye
slit lamp microscopy
examination of anterior ocular structures under microscopic magnification
visual acuity test
clarity of vision is assessed
visual field test
measures the area within which objects are seen when the eyes are fixed, looking straight ahead without moving the head
enucleation
removal of the entire eyeball
keratoplasty
surgical repair of the cornea
laser photocoagulation
intense, precisely focused light beam (argon laser) creates an inflammatory reaction that seals retinal tears and leaky retinal blood vessels
LASIK
use of an eximer laser to correct errors of refraction (myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism)
phacoemulsification
ultrasonic vibrations break up the lens, which is then aspirated throught the ultrasonic probe
scleral buckle
suture of a silicone band to the sclera over a detached portion of the retina
vitrectomy
removal of the vitreous humor
auditory canal
chanel that leads from the pinna to the eardrum
auditory meatus
auditory canal
auditory nerve fibers
carry impulses from the inner ear to the brain (cerebral cortex). These fibers compose the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII)
auditory tube
channel between the middle ear and the nasopharynx; eustachian tube
auricle
flap of the ear; the protruding part of the external ear, or pinna
cerumen
waxy sbstance secreted by the external ear; also called ear wax
cochlea
snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear;contains hearing-sensitive receptor cells
eustachian tube
auditory tube
incus
second ossicle (bone) of the middle ear; incus means anvil
labyrinth
maze-like series of canals of the inner ear. This includes the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals
malleus
first ossicle of the middle ear; malleus means hammer
organ of Corti
sensitive auditory receptor area found in the cochlea of the inner ear
ossicle
small bone of the ear; includes the malleus, incus, and stapes
oval window
membrane between the middle and the inner ears
perilymph
fluid contained in the labyrinth of the inner ear
auditory canal
chanel that leads from the pinna to the eardrum
auditory meatus
auditory canal
auditory nerve fibers
carry impulses from the inner ear to the brain (cerebral cortex). These fibers compose the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII)
auditory tube
channel between the middle ear and the nasopharynx; eustachian tube
auricle
flap of the ear; the protruding part of the external ear, or pinna
cerumen
waxy sbstance secreted by the external ear; also called ear wax
cochlea
snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear;contains hearing-sensitive receptor cells
eustachian tube
auditory tube
incus
second ossicle (bone) of the middle ear; incus means anvil
labyrinth
maze-like series of canals of the inner ear. This includes the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals
malleus
first ossicle of the middle ear; malleus means hammer
organ of Corti
sensitive auditory receptor area found in the cochlea of the inner ear
ossicle
small bone of the ear; includes the malleus, incus, and stapes
oval window
membrane between the middle and the inner ears
perilymph
fluid contained in the labyrinth of the inner ear
auditory canal
chanel that leads from the pinna to the eardrum
auditory meatus
auditory canal
auditory nerve fibers
carry impulses from the inner ear to the brain (cerebral cortex). These fibers compose the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII)
auditory tube
channel between the middle ear and the nasopharynx; eustachian tube
auricle
flap of the ear; the protruding part of the external ear, or pinna
cerumen
waxy sbstance secreted by the external ear; also called ear wax
cochlea
snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear;contains hearing-sensitive receptor cells
eustachian tube
auditory tube
incus
second ossicle (bone) of the middle ear; incus means anvil
labyrinth
maze-like series of canals of the inner ear. This includes the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals
malleus
first ossicle of the middle ear; malleus means hammer
organ of Corti
sensitive auditory receptor area found in the cochlea of the inner ear
ossicle
small bone of the ear; includes the malleus, incus, and stapes
oval window
membrane between the middle and the inner ears
perilymph
fluid contained in the labyrinth of the inner ear
auditory canal
chanel that leads from the pinna to the eardrum
auditory meatus
auditory canal
auditory nerve fibers
carry impulses from the inner ear to the brain (cerebral cortex). These fibers compose the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII)
auditory tube
channel between the middle ear and the nasopharynx; eustachian tube
auricle
flap of the ear; the protruding part of the external ear, or pinna
cerumen
waxy sbstance secreted by the external ear; also called ear wax
cochlea
snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear;contains hearing-sensitive receptor cells
eustachian tube
auditory tube
incus
second ossicle (bone) of the middle ear; incus means anvil
labyrinth
maze-like series of canals of the inner ear. This includes the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals
malleus
first ossicle of the middle ear; malleus means hammer
organ of Corti
sensitive auditory receptor area found in the cochlea of the inner ear
ossicle
small bone of the ear; includes the malleus, incus, and stapes
oval window
membrane between the middle and the inner ears
perilymph
fluid contained in the labyrinth of the inner ear
pinna
auricle; flap of the ear
semicircular canals
passages in the inner ear associated with maintaing equilibrium
stapes
third ossicle of the middle ear. Stapes means stirrup
tympanic membrane
membrane between the outer and the middle ear; also called the eardrum
vestibule
central cavity of the labyrinth, connecting the semicircular canals and the cochlea. The vestibule contains two structures, the saccule and utricle, that help to maintain equilibrium
acous/o
hearing
audi/o
heaing, the sense of hearing
audit/o
hearing
aur/o
auricul/o
car (see also ot/o)
cochle/o
cochlea
mastoid/o
mastoid process
myring/o
eardrum, tympanic membrane (see also tympan/o)
ossicul/o
ossicle
ot/o
ear
salping/o
eustachian tube, auditory tube
staped/o
stapes (third bone of the middle ear)
tympan/o
eardrum, tympanic membrane
vestibul/o
vestibule
-acusis or -cusis
hearing
-otia
ear condition
-otia
ear condition
acoustic neuroma
benign tumor arising from the acoustic vestibulocochlear nerve (8th cranial nerve) in the brain
cholesteatoma
collection of skin cells and cholesterol in a sac within the middle ear
deafness
loss of the ability to hear
Me'nie're disease
disorder of the labyrinth of the inner ear marked by elevated endolymph pressure within the cochlea (cochleear hydrops) and semicircular canals (vestibular hydrops)
otitis media
inflammation of the middle ear
otosclerosis
hardening of the bony tissue of the labyrinth of the ear
serous otitis media
is a noninfectious inflammation with accumulation of serous fluid
tinnitus
sensation of noises (ringing, buzzin, whistling, booming ) in the ears
vertigo
sensation of irregular or whirling motion either of oneself or of external objects
audiometry
testing the sense of hearing
cochlear implant
surgically implanted device allowing sensorineural hearing-impaired persons to understand speech
ear thermometry
measurement of the temperature of the tympanic membrane by detection of infrared radiation from the eardrum
otoscopy
visual examination of the ear with an otoscope
tuning fork test
test of ear conduction using a vibration source (tuning fork)
AD
right ear (latin, auris dextra)
AOM
acute otitis media
AS
left ear (latin, auris sinistra)
EENT
eyes, ears, nose, and throat
ENG
electronystagmography; a test of the balance mechanism of the inner ear by assessing eye movements (nystagmus is rapidly twitching eye movement)
ENT
ears, nose, and throat
PE tube
pressure equalizing tube; a polyethylene ventilating tube placed in the eardrum
SOM
serous otitis media
AMD
age-related macular degeneration
IOL
intraocular lens
IOP
intraocular pressure
LASIK
laser in situ keratomileusis
OD
right eye (latin, oculus dexter); doctor of optometry (optometrist)
OS
left eye (Latin, oculus sinister)
OU
both eyes (latin, oculusuterque)
PERRLA
pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation
POAG
primary open-angle glaucoma
VA
visual acuity
vF
visual field
olfactory
centers of smell in the nose