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63 Cards in this Set

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alluvial fan, p 481
Land counterpart of a delta . An assemblage of sediments marking place where a stream moves from a steep gradient to a flatter gradient and suddenly loses transporting power. Typical of arid and semiarid climates but not confined to them
alluvium, p 479
unconsolidated sediment deposited by a stream or river. Alluvium is not underwater, it is adjacent to the stream or river.
Alluvium makes great farmland.
antecedent stream, p 490
a stream that continued to downcut and maintain its original course as an area along its course was uplifted by faulting for folding
backswamp, p 481
A swamp that forms in the low lying flood plain behind a levee.
bar, p 479
1. A mass of sand, gravel, or alluvium deposited on the bed of a stream, sea, or lake, or at the mouth of a stream
base level, p 475
Of a stream is the point below which the stream cannot cut. A temporary base level along a stream, such as a lake may be removed by stream action. Ultimate base level is the ocean.
bed load, p 477
Material in motion along a stream bed
braided stream, p 479
braided stream A stream with a complex tangle of converging and diverging channels separated by sand bars or islands.
capacity, p 478
The total amount of material a stream is able to carry under given conditions
competence, p 479
The maximum size of particle that a stream can carry.
cut bank, p 486
the area of active erosion on the outside of a meander
cutoff, p 487
a short channel segment created when a river erodes through a narrow neck of land between meanders
delta, p 482
An assemblage of sediments accumulated where a stream flows into a body of standing water and its velocity and transporting power are suddenly reduced. . A "delta plain" is the upper surface of a delta.
dendritic pattern, p 489
A stream pattern that, when viewed on a map or from the air, resembles the branching pattern of a deciduous tree such as a maple or oak.
discharge, p 472
In a stream, the volume of water passing through a channel in a given time.
dissolved load, p 477
Amount of material water carries in solution
distributary, p 482
Stream channels that fan out from the upstream point of the delta and carry the sediments that build the delta.
divide, p 489
The line that separates one drainage basin from another.
drainage basin, p 489
The area from which a stream and its tributaries receives its water.
evapotranspiration, p 468
the combined effect of evaporation and transpiration
flood, p 491
Peak flow that tops the banks of a stream channel.
floodplain, p 491
Area bordering a stream over which water spreads when the stream tops its channel banks
graded stream, p 475
gradient, p 471
Slope of a stream bed or hillside. The vertical distance of descent over horizontal distance of slope.
head (headwaters), p 473
the beginning or source area for a stream
headward erosion, p 489
the extension upslope of the head of a valley due to erosion
hydrologic cycle, p 468
The pattern of water circulation from the ocean to the atmosphere to the land and back to the ocean.
incised meander, p 488
meandering channel flowing in a steep narrow valley. These features form either when an area is uplifted or when the base level drops
infiltration, p 470
the movement of surface water into rock or soil through cracks and pore spaces
laminar flow, p 471
Fluid flow in which flow lines are distinct, and parallel and do not mix. Compare with turbulent flow.
local base level, p 475
see "temporary base level"
longitudinal profile, p 473
a cross-section of a stream channel along its descending course from the head to the mouth
meander, p 486
A sharp bend, loop or turn in a stream's course. When abandoned, called a meander scar or an oxbow .
meander scar, p 487
a floodplain feature created when an oxbow lake becomes filled with sediment
mouth, p 473
the point downstream where a river empties ito another stream or water body
natural levee, p 481
an elevated landform composed of alluvium paralleling some streams and confining their waters, except during floodstage
oxbow lake, p 481
A lake in an abandoned meander.
Playfair's Law, p 484
a valley is produced by the stream that runs in it
the stream isn't located there because the valley is a naturally low place that the stream later occupied
point bar, p 479
Accumulations of sand and gravel deposited in slack water on inside of a winding or meandering river.
pothole, p 475
A hole or basin cut into bedrock of a stream by the abrasive action of pebbles and sand swirled by turbulent stream flow.
radial pattern, p 489
A pattern in which streams radiate outward from a high central zone
rapids, p 485
Turbulent stream water flow down a steep gradient, but not as steep as in a waterfall.
rectangular pattern, p 489
A pattern in which a stream and its tributaries follow courses marked by nearly right angle bends.
recurrence interval, p 491
the average time interval between hydrological events such as floods of a given or greater magnitude.
return period, p 491
see "recurrence interval"
rills, p 470
tiny channels developing as unconfined flow begins to produce threads of current
runoff, p. 468
The precipitation that runs directly off the surface to stream or body of standing water.
saltation, p 478
A process of sediment transport in which a particle jumps from one point to another.
settling velocity, p 478
the speed at which a particle falls through a still fluid. The size, shape, and specific gravity of the particles influence settling velocity.
sheet flow, p 470
runoff moving in unconfined thin sheets
sorting, p 479
stream piracy, p 490
superposed stream, p 491
suspended load, p 477
temporary (local base level, p 475
terrace, p 489
transpiration, p 468
trellis drainage pattern, p 489
turbulent flow, p. 471
ultimate base level, p 475
water gap, p 490
waterfall, p 485
yazoo tributary, p 481