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89 Cards in this Set

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at start of Civil War, who is the outgoing president?
Buchanan
Fort Sumter
place where Major Anderson gathered all his troops to defend fort against possible attack by the South
commander of 3 forts in South Carolina
Major Robert Anderson
First shots fired against the Union
when Buchanan sent supplies to Fort Sumter; driven off by SC army with canon fire
Significance of Feb 4, 1861
in Montgomery, Alabama
delegates from 6 Southern states met to create central government; adopted constitution 3 days later
confederacy
alliance of independent states; Confederate States of America; 11 independent states
Jefferson Davis and Alexander Stephens
Davis was elected president of Confederacy, elected by the state delegates; Stephens was the VP
first 7 secessionist states
South Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Texas, Louisiana
Lincoln becomes President
inaugurated on March 4, 1861
Lincoln's cabinet
William Seward, Secretary of State
first surrender by Union
Major Anderson surrendered after Davis had Fort Sumter bombarded; start of the war
key motivation of South to fight
self determination and protecting their way of life
key motivation of North to fight
save the Union (not to abolish slavery)
Robert E. Lee
commander of Confederate Army; from the state of Virginia
Lincoln's First Inaugural Address
reaffirmed friendship with the South, stressed national unity, asked Sotherners to abandon secession
effect of news that Lincoln intended to use force against Confederacy?
more southern states secede: Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia seceeded
advantages that the North had
larger population, large-scale industrialization, more resources, more weaponry, better transportation networks (railroads)
North's naval capability
large, efficient, had ability to build more ships; could blockade southern ports
South's advantages
superior military leaders, captive labor force, help from Europe, easier to fight defensive war on familiar soil; more motivated: defending way of life; more pack animals (horses, mules, donkeys)
South's greatest weakness during the war
1. Davis had trouble controlling the states and coordinating the war due to weak central government;
2. state governors refused to send troops across state lines
3. state legislatures refused to support Richmond with $$$
North's disadvantages
longer lines of communication and supply lines
Johnny Reb
nickname for Confederate soldier
Billy Yank
nickname for Union soldiers
what made war modern?
mass of quickly trained soldiers instead of professionals; new fighting strategies; find weak point of enemy and break through
what factors did commanders consider important?
geographic, economic, polical aspects of battle; preparation and information collecting key; reconnaissance
units of the army
cavalry, artillery, infantry
cavalry
key task: planning; gathered information regarding geography, troop movements, availabilty and location of supplies and reinforcements
artillery
manned the big guns; weakened enemy and protected retreating troups
infantry
did most of the fighting; regimens of 1000 soldiers (called foot soldiers)
tools of war
artillery, shells and rifles
targets of attack
troops, will to fight, civilians, productive capacity (industries)
what was Bull Run?
location: Manassas Junction
civilians had picnics to watch; bloodier than expected; several thousanded killed and wounded; Union fled, McDowell was the north's general.
Lincoln's response to Bull Run?
put George B. McClellan in charge of army
border states
Maryland, Deleware, Kentucky, Missouri; stayed in the Union
habeas corpus
Latin for "you shall have the body". Lincoln suspened the requirement to make legal charges against people that are arrested; ruled illegal by Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Roger Taney
illegal acts by Lincoln
suspending habeas corpus; naval blockade of South; increased size of army; illegal voting methods
McClellan's weaknesses
vain, overestimated his abilities, thought Lincoln was stupid and incompetent, savior complex; overly cautious when fighting; never ready to attack
McClellan's successes
well trained army
Battle of 7 Pines
McClellan delayed attack on Richmond; Confederates attacked first; heavy losses on both sides
Who took over for General Johnston after he was wounded at Battle of Seven Pines?
Robert E. Lee, leader of the Army of Norther Virginia
Seven Days Before Richmond
After the Union was diverted to defend DC, Lee attaced McClellan with the help of Stonewall Jackson; Union lost 15k, and Confederates lost 20k; neither side victorious
Why was mechanical reaper so important during the war?
increased the production of crops; helped compensate for loss of farm help; Cyrus McCormick
inflation
price of goods rise; wages did not rise fast enough to keep up with the rising cost of goods; fortunately, work was plentiful; people could take care of themselves
Copperheads
people who opposed the war; most important leader was Clement Vallandigham; most supported the Democrats; sympathetic to South; secret societies (Knights of the Golden Circle; Sons of Liberty)
How did Lincoln treat critics of the war?
suspended right to habeas corpus; 13k Americans were held in jail without charges
How successful was the naval blockade of the South? What goods were exchanged by the blockade runners?
very successful; ship entrances dropped by almost 90%; cotton, farm products, guns, medicine, blankets, coffee, silks and other luxuries
What did southerners believe cotton diplomacy would bring?
they thought cutting off cotton to England and France would draw those countries into supporting the South in the war
Why did southerners dislike the draft?
draft favored the rich; rich could buy a substitute to take their place; also owners of 20 or more slaves were exempted from war
religion in wartime
Stonewall encourage religious revivals in his army; US Christian Commission recruited northern pastors to serve as chaplins
slaves in the war
South used slaves as soldiers; some fled to North (contraband) to help; could not join Union Army until 1862 with the passage of the Militia Act
the war and free African Americans
16 won Medal of Honor; South Carolina Regiment led by Colonel Thomas Wentworth Higginson of Massachusetts, whose praise had positive effects on public opinion
women and the war
managed business and farms; 400 hired by Federal government as clerks; worked in factories and arsenals; Clara Barton was one of the fist nurses
facts about McClellan
defeated Robert E. lee at the Battle of Antietam in 1862, giving Lincoln the opportunity to issue Emancipation Proclamation; was fired by Lincoln; ran for President in 1864 as a Peace Democrat but was defeated
William Sherman
close friend of Ulysses S. Grant; known for total war, breaking the will of the Southern people to fight; famous March To The Sea
importance of border states
geographical and ideological buffer between North and South; had Maryland seceded, DC would have been surrounded by Confederate territory; important economic engines for the Union bse Maryland and Deleware had so many factories; Emancipation Declaration only freed slaves in secessionist states, not loyal border states
Second Battle of Bull Run
North's objective to capture Richmond; Lee attacked Pope's army; Pope counterattacks; South wins; Lincoln fires Pope; gives McClellan command again;
Antietam
Lee made aggressive push into borders states to defeat Union on own turf; September 1862; 23k casualties; bloodiest single day of battle of the entire war; Lee forced to retreat
Emancipation Proclamation
issued after Antietam; freed all slaves in Confederacy; large political impact by tieing issue of slavery to retoration of the Union; Lincoln valued reunification above abolision of slavery
Draft Riots
Northern draft; allowed rich persons to hire substitutes or pay $300 to avoid service; poor objected to draft because they didn't want to fight for people who might take their jobs
Battle of Shiloh
April 1862, Grant suprised by attack of General Albert Sidney Johnston; Grant engaged Confederate forces at Shiloh, Tennessee; tens of thousands died; sent message to South that Lincoln was serious about maintaining the Union; Grant was relieved of command
Fredericksburg
Burnside with 120k Union soldiers attacked Lee's 75k even though South had much better field position; Burnside utterly defeated with 12k losses; resigns after battle
Chancellorsville
Lincoln puts Fight Joe Hooker in command of army (125k); attacked by Lee (60k); Lee wins helped by Stonewall; Stonewall wounded and dies
Gettysburg
inspite of loss at Antietam, Lee marches into Northern territory again; George Meade in charge of Union army; at end of 2 days, Lee charges center; Pickett leads Confederate charge; South defeated; 50k dead from both sides; Lee retreats; victory for North, catastrophe for South; Meade failed to pursue and crush the Confederate army; war lasts 2 more years
Siege of Vicksburg
Grant besieged Vicksburg, bombing from north of the city and then attacking from the south; Vicksburg defended by General Pemberton; Grant surrounded city until they ran out of supplies; forced them into unconditional surrender; gave Union control of Mississippi River, splitting the Confederacy in two
Gettysburg Address
Lincoln commemorated the Union victory at Gettysburg
Fort Henry
attacked by Grant
Fort Donelson
attacked by Grant; terms of surrender: "immediate and unconditional surrender"
Reorganization of the army after Vicksburg
Grant promoted to lieutenant general and named general-in-chief of all armies of the US
Important railway center and key Union military objective
Chattanooga, Tennessee; Grant defeats General Braxton Bragg
Grant and Lincoln's final plan for war
Grant vs Lee in northern Virginia; General Sherman march from Chattanooga to northern Georgia to capture Atlanta
Final Battles: Battle of the Wilderness
Grant objective: have Lee run short of equipment by attacking him relentlessly; attacks by Grant: in the forest of Wilderness; Grant: 100k vs Lee's 60k soldiers; Grant's loses 18k, far more than Lee's; again at Spotsylvania Court House; 12k Union loses 1 day; next at Cold Harbor: 7k Union die in 1 hour
Total losses in Grant vs. Lee
one month totals:
Grant: 55k men
Lee: 31k men
Siege of Petersburg
Grant tries to capture it to cut of Lee's army; city was important railroad junction; siege lasts 9 months
Sherman's March to the Sea
with 100k men vs Johnston's 60k men; Davis replaces Johnston with General Hood; Hood attacks Sherman twice; both failed; Sherman takes Atlanta & burns it to the ground; then heads for Savannah, leaving a 60 mile wide path of destruction
Election of 1864
Lincoln renominated by Republicans and pro-war Democrats on a National Union ticket; his VP was Andrew Jackson; Democratic candidate was McClellan; Lincoln reelected in a landslide
Sherman neckties
hot twisted railroad ties wound around trees
total war
Sherman sought to destroy the resources of the civilian population as well as the opposing army to break their will to resist; "War is cruelty" is his response to criticism; his army destroyed large sections of S. Carolina, N. Carolina, and Richmond
Surrender at Appomattox
after Lee's army was cutoff while trying to escape to N. Carolina, Lee finally decided to surrender; Sunday, April 9, 1865; Lee dignified in defeat, Grant gracious in victory
Terms of Surrender at Appomattox
described as generous: Confederates must surrender weapons, promise to be loyal to Union, and depart in peace. Men allowed to keep horses and mules.
Why was there no strong presidential reaction in the winter of 1861 to the secession of the Deep South?
while Buchanan declared sucession illegal, he also said it would be illegal for the federal government to stop them. Lincoln showed no interest in dealing with problem of secession before he took office in March 4, 1861
How did the Confederate constitution reflect the South's belief in states' rights?
not a union, but a confederacy of independent states; guaranteed the rights of citizens to own slaves; forbid Congress from passing any law that might deny the right of property in negro slaves; Congress could not spend money until 2/3 of representatives approved; needed 2/3 votes to ammend constitution whereas US needed 3/4.
What was Lincoln's message to the Confederacy in his first inaugural address?
reaffirmed friendship with the South, stressed national unity, and asked Southerners to abandon secession
Why did Lincoln wish Lee to command his army?
had captured John Brown; owned no slaves; known for opposition to secession; top student at US Military Academy; high grades; performed well in Mexican War
What advantages did the North have at the beginning of the Civil War?
larger population, large-scale industrialization, more resources, more weaponry, better transportation networks (railroads); its Navy was large, efficient and could blockage southern ports
What advantages did the South have at the beginning of the war?
superior military leaders, captive labor force, help from Europe, easier to fight defensive war on familiar soil; stronger motivation: defending way of life; had more pack animals
What did the Battle of Bull Run reveal about both sides?
both sides were unexperienced and very disorganized
In what ways was the Civil War the first modern war?
soldiers were volunteers instead of professionals; new fighting strategies were employed such as finding the weak point of the enemy and breaking through
What reasoning did Lincoln give for going to war?
a nation has the right to protect itself against destruction; one secession could lead to many, and was therefore worth fighting against
leg cases
Union soldiers who deserted the army during battle