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54 Cards in this Set

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Lymphatic Pathways
lymphatic capillaries
lymphatic vessels
lymph nodes
lymphatic trunk
collecting duct
drains into subclavian vein
Lymphatic Capillaries
microscopic
close-ended tubes
in intersitial spaces
parallel blood capillaries
simple squamos epithelium
collects lymph
Lymphatic Vessels
1)lymphatic capillaries merge to form lymphatic vessels
2)valves prevent backflow
3)lead to lymph nodes
4)merge into lymphatic trunks
5)named for regions they serve
Lymphatic trunks drain into collecting ducts
thoracic duct
right lymphatic duct
Lymphatic Collecting Ducts * Right Lymphatic Duct*
receives lymph from:
right side of head
right upper lim
right thoras
empties into right subclavian vein
*Thoracic Duct*
Large
receives lymph from everwhere else
drains into left subclavian vein
Lymph
1)tissue fluid that has entered a lypmhatic capillary
2)similar to plasma, but much less protein
Lymph formation
1)formed by filtration of water and dissolved substances in capillaries
2)similar to plasma, but much less protein
3)proteins are too large to diffuse across capillary wall
Lymph Movements
1)lymph flows at low pressure and speed
2)valves prevent backward flow
3)moed primarily by rhythmic contractions of lymphatic vessels (stretching of vessels stimulates contraction)
Lymph Movements
1)Flow aided by
2)rapidly flowing bloodstream in
3)excercise significantly increases
1)skeletal muscle pump
2)subclavian veins, draws lymph into it
3)lymphatic return
Lymph Nodes
1)located along lymphatic pathway
2)contain many lymphocytes and macrophages
3)occur singly or in groups
Major Node Groups
1)cervical region
2)axillary region
3)inguinal region
4)pelvic cavity
5)abdominal cavity
6)thoracic cavity
7)supratrochlear region
Functions of Lymph Nodes
1)filter potentially harmful particles from lymph
2)immune surveillance by macrophages and lymphocytes
Areas of Lymphocyte production
1) with red bone marrow
Thymus
1)anterior to aorta
2) posterior to sternum
3)small in an adult
4)site ot T lymphocyte production
Spleen
1)inferior to diaphram
2)posterior and lateral to stomach
3)largest lymphatic organ
4)sinuses filled with blood
Spleen *White Pulp*
1)islands of tissue
2)many lymphocytes
Spleen *Red Pulp*
1)surround sinuses w/vessels
2)contains:
-red blood cells
-lymphocytes
-macrophages
3)removes old and damages RBCs
Pathogen
1)didease causing agent
2)causes infection
3)bacteria, viruses, etc.
Two Defense Types
*Innate Defenses"
1)nonspecific
2)protects against many pathogens
Two Defense Types
*adaptive defenses*
1)very precise and specific
2)target certain pathogens
3)"immunity"
4)carried out by lymphocytes
Innate Defenses
*Species Resistance*
1)resistance to certain diseases to which other species are susceptible
2)ex. measles, mumps
Innate Defenses
*Mechanical Barriers*
1)prevent entry of pathogens
2)skin, mucous membranes
Innate Defenses
*Chemical Barriers*
1)enzymes in various body fluids
2)pH extremes in stomach
3)high salt concentrations
Innate Defenses
*Fever*
1)inhibits microbial growth
2)increases phagocytic activity
3)fever is not a bad thing!
Innate Defenses
*Inflammation*
1)tissue response to injury
2)helps prevent spread of pathogen
3)promotes healing
4)blood vessels dilate
5)capillaries become leaky
6)white blood cells attracted to area
7)clot forms
8)fibroblasts arrive
9)destruction of foreign particles
Innate Defenses
*Phagocytosis*
1)neutrophils
2)monocytes
3)macrophages
4)destruction of foreing particles
Adaptive Defense = Immunity
1)resistance to particular pathogens or to their toxins or metablic by-products
2)based on the ability to distinguish "self" from "non-self"
3)antigens elicit immune responses
Antigens
1)a cell surface marker recognized by other cells of the body
2)some cells are marked a "self" (do NOT illicit an immune response)
3)lymphatic system responds to "non-self" antigen
4)most effective are large and complex
Lymphocyte Origin
1)undeferintiated lymphocytes released into circulation
2)about half become T-cells in thymus
3)other remain in red marrow and differentiate into B lymphocytes
4)both travel to lymphatic organs to perform functions
T Cells
*Cellular Immune Response*
1)attach to foreign cells and interact directly
2)cell-to-cell contact
Types Of T Cells
*Helper T Cell*
1)contacts and combines w/foreign antigen
2)activates helper T Cell
3)once activated, stimulates B cells to produce antibodies
Types of T Cells
*Cytotoxic T Cell*
1)recognizes non-self antigens on cancerous and virus infected cells
2)becomes activated and divides
3)bind to surfaces of antigen bearing cells and destroys them
4)provides much of immune response to HIV
Types of T Cells
*memory T cell*
1)do not respond to antigens and 1st exposure
2)when activated by antigen, immediately divide to produce cyotoxic T cells
B Cells
1)most differentiate into plasma cells
2)produce antibodies ("immunoglobulins")
3)becomes activated when antigen encountered
4)B Cell divided repeatedly
5)most antigens require helper T cells for activation
B Cells
*Humoral Immune Response*
1)body fluids carry antibodies
2)antibodies destroy antigen bearing foreign cells
B Cells
*Memory Cells*
1)respond rapidly to subsequent antigen exposure
B Cells
*Plasma Cells*
1)antibody secreting cells
2)bind foreign antigens and destroys them
Antibody Molecules
1)several different types
-IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE
2)each with different function
Antibody Actions
1)directly attack antigens=easier for phagocytes to find and attack antigen bearing cells
2)agglutination
-clumping
3)precipitation
-form insoluble sunstances
4)activate compement proteins to attack antigens
5)stimulate changes in local environment to prevent spread of pathogen
Immune Response
*Primary immune response*
1)first encounter of antigen
2)low number of antibodies produced
3)Ab appear 5-10 days after exposure
Immune Response
*Secondary immune response*
1)B memory and T memory cells respond rapidly to antigens previously encountered
2)produce Ab within 1-2 days
Practical Classification of Immunity
*naturally acquired active immunity*
1)person exposed to antigen and develops disease
2)resistance is response to primary immune response
Practical Classification of Immunity
*artificially acquired active immunity*
1)exposure to vaccine containing weakened or dead pathogens, or their components
2)immune system stimulated w/o disease
Practical Classification of Immunity
*naturally acquired passive immunity*
1)antibodies passed from mother to fetus during pregnancy
Practical Classification of Immunity
*artificially acquired passive immunity*
1)person is injected with already made antibodies
2)usually obtained from person who already developed immunity to particular disease
Tissues That Are Transplanted
-corneas
-kidneys
-liver
-pancreases
-hearts
-bone marrow
-skin
Tissues That Are Transplanted
*tissue rejection reaction*
1)resembles cellular immune response against antigens
2)important to math MHC antigens
3)immunosuppressive drugs used to prevent rejection
Graft Types
1)Isograft
2)Autograft
3)Allograft
4)Xenograft
1)identical twin
2)self
3)same species
4)different species
Autoimmunity
1)inability to distinguish "self" from "non-self"
Autoimmunity
*autoimmune disorders*
1)type I diabetes
2)hemolytic anemia
3)rheumatic fever
4)rheumatic arthritis
5)lupus
Immunity Breakdown: AIDS
1)recurrent fever
2)weakness
3)weight loss
4)caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
Immunity Breakdown: AIDS
*HIV impair macrophages and helper T Cells*
1)normal TH count is 600-1,200 cells/uL of blood
2)AIDS it is<200 cells/uL
Immunity Breakdown: AIDS
1)tricks cells to internalize virus
2)later in infection, HIV impairs cyotoxic T Cells
3)HIV mutates quickly
4)immune system cannot keep up with HIV