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24 Cards in this Set

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What are the general characteristics of a virus?
1)inibility to replicate in absence of host
2)Lack metabolic capability(Enzymes for glycolysis)
3)Effectively-nonliving
Size of a virus
10nm(Ribosome)-400nm(very small bacteria)
What is the capsid of a virus?
It holds the viral nucleic acid.
What are the varied shapes of a virus?
1)Helical
2)Icoshedral
3)Enveloped-membrane associated with capsid.
The capsid
1)Made up of 1 or 2 types of protein but multiple copies
2)Proteins can self-aggregate
What are the characteristics of enveloped viruses?
1)Lipid bilayer-host derived
2)Proteins-viral nucleic acid encoded
What are the nucleic acids of viruses?
1)DNA-ss or ds
2)RNA-ss, ds, +strand, -strand
3)Nucleic acid may be segmented.
What is an example of a virus that has ss DNA and is linear?
Parvovirus
What is an example of a virus that has ss DNA that is circular?
M13-bacteriophage
What is an example of a virus that has ds DNA that is linear?
Lambda virus
What is an example of a virus that has ds DNA and is circular?
Small pox virus
What is an example of a virus that has ss RNA and is +strand?
Poliovirus;plants
What is an example of a virus that has ss RNA and is -strand?
Rabies, measels
What is an example of a virus that has ss RNA and is +strand and segmented?
HIV
What is an example of a virus that has ss RNA and is -strand and is segmented?
influenze
What is an example of a virus that has ds RNA and is segmented?
insect/plants
Eukaryote mRNA will be modified with what?
5'-->cap
3'-->poly A tail
+ strand RNA is ??
mRNA can be immediately translated into protein.
- strand RNA is what?
Complementary to a + strand and is converted into + strand before it will get translated.
How are animal viruses reproduced?
1)Absorption to host surfaces
2)Penetration and uncoating of nucleic acid.
3)Replication and transcription and translation.
4)Synthesis of viral particles
5)Viral release mechanisms.
How are viruses absorbed?
By attachment to specific host cell surface receptors.
In a complex(enveloped) virus how does it penetrate and uncoat?
A. receptor interation, viral envelope remains on hosts cell exterior, viral nucleo capsid released into cytoplasm, and nuceic acid is released and processed.
B. Receptor interaction, whole virus is endocytosed(enters host within a lysome), lysosomal pH drops, uncoating of virus, release of nuceic acid through lysosomal membrane into the cytoplasm.
How is penetration and uncoating done in non-enveloped viruses?
1)Interaction with host surface receptors
2)Endocytosis
3)Uncoating
4)Release of nucleic acid
5)processing
How does replication of viral nucleic acids take place for DNA viruses?
1)DNA mobilized to nucleus(have signals)
2)Transcription
3)Viral proteins are made in cytoplasm.
4)Supression of 'normal' host function
5)host translation machinery used for viral protein synthesis.