Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
6-13 Proliferative phase Endometrium thickens and becomes vascular Follicle - FSH (+ feedback) - less developed follicles atrophy (atresia)
Muscular organ that expands during pregnancy for the growing fetus. Organ for placental attachment and embryo development.
Uterus (womb)
15-26,27-28 Luteal (secretory) phase (dominated by corpus luteum)Premenstrual Embryo must be implanted by end of cycle or menstrual flow If no fertilization:Day 25: - GnRH & FSH blood to cells „³ necrosis
(vas) deferens - muscular tube from the epididymis about 45 cm long carries
sperm through inguinal canal to pelvic cavity, passes behind bladder, & joins the.

1-13 Follicular Phase-Follicles grow
1-5 Menstruation (menses) phase Discharge as endometrium is shed: Aver. loss: 40 ml blood + 35 mL serous fluid FSH & follicular maturationOvaries secrete estrogen 2o oocyte forms
Days Phase Events Events in Ovary
follows orgasm. Additional blood flow to penis restricted, gradual return of penis to flaccid state, may allow for continued intercourse so female can reach orgasm Refractory period 10 min - few hrs after intercourse where an erection/ orgasm not possible.
Final maturation of follicle and formation of corpus luteum, causes ovulation, causes blister to break, stimulates corpus luteum to secrete estrogen and progesterone (maintains thickness of endometrium).
foreskin that attaches to shaft (Circumcision = surgical removal of prepuce).
appear as sexual maturity approaches(adolescence to puberty)Males - pubic, auxiliary and facial hair, coarse visible hair on torso and limbs, apocrine glands, a more muscular physique, and a lower pitched voice Females - pubic & auxiliary hair, additional body fat deposition, breast development
Secondary sex characteristics
not directly attached to ovary, use fimbriae that sweep egg into tube Pull newly released egg along using cilia and convey it to the womb. Fertilization occurs in these tubes Eggs only live 24 hours but take 3 days to travel through these tubes.
Oviduct (fallopian tube)
1)1o oocyte matures into 2 o oocyte in 2 o follicle, produces estrogen and progesterone 2o follicle develops into Graafian follicle which migrates to surface of egg 3)Ovulation releases 2 o oocyte 4)Corpus luteum (hole in follicle that remains on surface) produces progesterone If the egg is not fertilize, the corpus luteum disintegrates.
Egg develop in 1o follicle - contains egg(oocyte) and produces estrogen
expanded distal head with external urinary meatus at tip.
stimulates sperm production, development of secondary sexual characteristics, growth of reproductive glands, and onset of puberty, enlargement of ducts & glands (wet dreams occur during this time),
Androgens (testosterone)
stimulates growth of ovaries, secondary sex characteristics, and feminine physique Stimulates osteoblast activity for growth spurt and pelvis widening.
function in women to secrete milk post-delivery, contain adipose and mammary tissue in mounds overlying pectoris major with nipple - areolar tissue with sparse hairs,bumps on surface are glands that prevent cracking during nursing During pregnancy - develop 15-20 lobes radially arranged to secrete milk.
Mammary glands
pendulous pouch that suspends testes outside of body Scrotum maintains 2o cooler temperature for sperm production in testes
Muscles contract to draw testes closer to body when cold or relaxes when warm.
GnRH - from hypothalamus, regulates FSH & LH, FSH (follicle stimulating) - promotes sperm production in testes, LH (Luteinizing, ICSH) - stimulate testosterone (androgen) secretion in interstitial cells.
From puberty through adulthood - testes function is regulated by hormones:
thin-walled chamber, opens to outside, 8-10 cm tube, discharges menstrual
fluids, receives penis and semen. Tilts back between urethra and rectum. Blocked by hymen membrane at birth until physical activity ruptures this. Fetus passes through this tube at birth.
Vagina (birth canal)
Develops in 1 in every 8 American women (can occur in men), leading cause of death Treatment may include lumpectomy or single mastectomy, radiation, chemotherapy, and estrogen-blocker (tamoxifen) for estrogen sensitive tumors, (some tumors stimulated by estrogen).
Breast cancer
organs other than gonads that function in reproduction In male: ducts, glands, and penis - all function to store, convey, and maintain sperm In female: uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina - all concerned with uniting sperm with egg and maintaining the developing fetus if egg is fertilized.
Secondary sex organs
hormone changes that occur in midlife cause cessation of menstruation, usually
around 45-55 years of age, average age has increased steadily to 52 Aging causes: Fewer follicles, follicles are less responsive to gonadotropins - secrete less estrogen and progesterone.
Perimetrium „³ serosa layer that covers the outside.
produce gametes & sex steroids, lie in abdominal cavity attached to uterus, enclosed in a tough protective capsule, contains many follicles egg surrounded by follicle cells which nourish the egg and produce estrogens. Female fetus makes 2 million while still in embryo week 5-6 with 400,000 remaining at puberty.
Ovaries (2) gonads
sperm leaves penis in fluid called semen made by three main accessory glands:1.Seminal vesicles - 2,posterior to bladder, duct joins the vas deferens Secretion = 60% of semen, milky appearance, contains fructose (sperm energy) and prostaglandins (contract uterus smooth muscle).
At ejaculation
single donut shaped, surrounds the ejaculatory duct inferior to bladder, posterior to rectum (can be palpated in rectal wall in digital rectal exam (DRE))
Prostate gland
occurs about every 30 days, one ovary releases an egg into abdominal cavity
Release of first egg occurs about one year after first menstruation.

Ovulation - begins,
cyclic based on menstrual cycle with egg released timed to endometrium thickening Menstruation - endometrium shedding, bleeding from vagina Ovarian Cycle - Hierarchy of hormonal control is: hypothalamus - pituitary - ovaries - uterusEach gland regulates the next
GnRH, LH, & FSH control ovarian cycle
Then sperm passes through prostate gland and empties into urethra about 20 cm long, common passageway for urine from bladder and sperm (cannot pass both at the same time) which passes through penis to exterior of body.
Having no Y chromosomes -penis & scrotum don't descend & ovaries produce no testosterone. Separate openings form for excretory reproductive tracts External organs - clitoris (glans) & vestibule (2 sets of labia surrounding vaginal & urethra openings)
What makes fetus female?
lining with rich blood supply, the mucosa Thickness controlled by hormones on monthly cycle from puberty- menopause. Thickens through the first part of the menstrual cycle. If no fertilization - lining is degraded each month and shed as menses blood.
palpable lump, puckering of skin, changes in skin texture, and nipple drainage Other risk factors: Aging, exposure to ionizing radiation, carcinogenic chemicals, excessive alcohol, excessive fat intake, smoking, genetics
Symptoms include
Consists of three cylinders of erectile tissue „³ sinuses within cylinders fill with blood during arousal to
stiffen penis for penetration of vagina and delivery of sperm
14 Ovulation Endometrium thickening-estrogen & Serge in LH (- blood to follicle), Oocy released - Fimbriae caress ovary, sweep egg into tube Mature 2o (Graafian) follicle protrudes as blister on ovary surface which swells, burst
acts primarily on the uterus, prepares it for possible pregnancy.
Begins at age 8-13 for most US and European girls (later in other countries)GnRH, FSH & LH - stimulates secretion of estrogen, progesterone, small quantities of androgens by ovaries. Levels rise sharply in teens.
2cm duct formed where vas deferens and seminal vesicle ducts join.
Ejaculatory duct
Zygote implants into endometrium and forms fetal part of placenta
Placenta - attaches to endometrium, fetus exchanges oxygen and nutrients with mother.

If egg is fertilized:
external genitalia, includes the mons pubis, labia and clitoris Erectile tissue „³ During arousal labia, vagina and clitoris engorge with blood
Respirations, labia congest and enlarge, uterus
(normally tilted forward) stands erect and the cervix pulls away from vagina lining up to receive the sperm.
Myotonia & Vasocongestion
(external visible portion) and root (Internal portion not visible).
Respirations, labia congest and enlarge, uterus
(normally tilted forward) stands erect and the cervix pulls away from vagina lining up to receive the sperm.
Myotonia & Vasocongestion
Initiated by broad range of exotic stimuli (sight, smell, etc), - HR, BP, & ventilations Vasocongestion (blood swells genitals) - erection (allows easy entry into vagina).
Deliberate prevention of fertilization, prevents release of egg or sperm or prevents implantation.

deposits semen into vagina. Average 8-10 cm long X 3 cm flaccid, 13-18 cm X 4 cm erect.
Possibly involuntary pelvic thrusting, 3-5 contractions
Resolution - No refractory period required for additional orgasms in females
If egg is fertilized: -Zygote implants into endometrium and forms fetal part of placenta
2) Orgasm, 3) Resolution
(2) at vaginal opening, secrete mucus to lubricate
Homologues to bulbourethral glands - keep vagina moist and deliver lubricant.
Bartholin (vestibular) glands
possibly involuntary pelvic thrusting, 3-5 contractions
No refractory period required for additional orgasms in females
oval, located within the scrotal sac, produce sperm & testosterone Sertoli cells - protect, nourish, & remove waste from sperm Interstitial (Leydig) cells - located between tubules, produce testosterone.
can have a major impact on the quality of life perception Includes: Decline of testosterone „³ secretions peak at age 20 (only 20% by 80) Male climacteric - male change of life, most men have no symptoms but may cause hot flashes, mood swings, and feelings of suffocation
Aging and sexual dysfunction:
Coiled duct on superior side of testes for sperm storage and maturation. Sperm gain motility here. Live 40-60 days here and are reabsorbed if not used.
layer of smooth muscle runs in all directions making up most of wall Cervix - collagen neck of inferior uterus that joins the vagina. Must dilate during delivery.
has three parts: Head „³ 4-5 um long, containing nucleus that contains 22 chromosomes + X or Y (1N set) Acrosome - cap over head, contains enzymes to penetrate into the egg Midpiece - thickest part contains mitochondria - produce ATP for tail energy Tail - single flagellum.
Spermatozoan (mature sperm)
Inability to gain/ maintain an erection and effects about 20% of men age 50 - 70, but most can still ejaculate Viagra - corrects inability of penile tissue to swell completely.
Erectile dysfunction (impotency)
ejaculate, contains sperm + glandular secretions above, 2-5 mL of fluid 10% sperm & duct secretions, trace bulbourethral fluid, 30% prostatic & 60% seminal fluids Sperm count = 50-120 million sperm / mL (<20-25 million sperm / mL = infertile or sterile).
From puberty to menopause with some resting periods „³ release one egg during ovulation at about
day 14 of aver. 28-day (20-45 days) cycle. Ovulate about 480 times during reproductive years.
Ovarian Cycle
2, pea sized, posterior to prostate, either side of urethra Secretion = clear slippery, mucus fluid that lubricates head of penis for intercourse & is basic.
Bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands
Mature sperm must meet viable eggs by internal fertilization - offspring created by fusion of
haploid (1n, 23 chromosome) gametes to form zygote (2n, 46 chromosome).
Gonads (produce gametes), include testes and ovaries
Primary sex organs
Process of producing 1n gametes from 2n cells in the gonads Spermatogenesis - produces 1n sperm, which matures in the testes
Oogenesis - produces a 1n egg (ovum) from 2n cells in ovaries

combines genetic material of one egg and one sperm.
Sex cells = haploid egg and sperm Sperm from males is mostly DNA, flagella, and mitochondria and travels further Egg from female is larger & slower, contains adequate nutrients for the embryoFemale provides a sheltered internal environment for embryo and produces milk for newborn.
Copulatatory organs deliver mature sperm & transport viable eggs.
Inferterna. Feritilization
A male must inherit an X & Y set of sex chromosomes
Egg only carries an X chromosome „³ can only donate an "X" sex chromosome to zygote,Sperm carries an X or Y chromosome - father determines the sex of each fetus
Se Determiniation
physical contact of sex organs to combine gametes. Organs of copulation include: Penis - male organ that introduces sperm into female Vagina - female organ that receives the penis and serves as birth canal
Copulation (coitus)