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59 Cards in this Set

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What is microbial antagonism?
When normal microbiota compete with potential pathogens
A few examples of microbial antagonism are when normal microbiota . . .
consume nutrients that potential pathogens don't get, secrete antimicrobial substances, change the pH in such a way as to create an environment that potential pathogens don't like, 's presence alone primes the immune system
axenic
free of all germs
tears contain
lysozyme
stem cells have a role in immunology by . . .
being generative cells that reproduce via cytokinesis, and therefore sheds cells and microorganisms
nasal mucus contains
lysozyme
sweat glands contain
salt and lysozyme
skin contains
sebum, which lowers pH
saliva contains
lysozyme
formed elements are
cells and cell fragments
Most numerous type of formed elements, carry oxygen and carbon dioxide
erythrocytes
Pieces of large cells, assist in blood clotting
platelets
defend against invaders, white blood cells
leukocytes
the two groups of leukocytes
granulocytes, and agranulocytes
have large granules in their cytoplasm that stain different colors
granulocytes
stain blue with the basic dye methylene blue
basophils
stain red to orange with the acidic dye:
eosin:
eosinophils
stain lilac with a mixture of acidic and basic dyes
neutrophils
also known as polymorphonuclear leukocytes
neutrophils
can phagocytize pathogens, and can exit the blood to attack invading microbes in the tissues
neutrophils and eosinophils
the smallest blood vessels
capillaries
the process of neutrophils and eosinophils exiting the blood to attack invading microbes in the tissues
diapedesis (to leap through),
emigration
involved in defending the body against parasitic worms
eosinophils
can leave the blood, but are not phagocytic
basophils
they release histamine during inflammation, an aspect of the second line of defense
basophils
the cytoplasm of this appears uniform when viewed via light microscopy
agranulocytes
the smallest leukocytes, have nuclei that nearly fill the cells
lymphocytes
large agranulocytes with slightly lobed nuclei
monocytes
Lymphocytes that function in nonspecific defense
matural killer (NK) lymphocytes
monocytes leave the blood and mature into
macrophages
phagocytic cells of the second line of defense
macrophages
they devour foreign objects, including bacteria, fungi, spores, and dust, as well as dead body cells
macrophages
They leave the blood via diapedesis and perform their scavenger function while travelling throughout the body, including extracellular spaces
Wandering macrophages
Macrophages that cannot wander
Langerhans cells of the epidermis, alveolar macrophages of the lungs, microglia of the CNS, Kupffer cells of the liver
generally phagocytize withing a specific organ, where they associate with a reticulum of fibers that join the organ's cells together
fixed cells (macrophages that cannot wander)
60-70% of leukocytes
neutrophils
2-4% of leukocytes
eosinophil
0.5-1% of leukocytes
basophil
3-8% of leukocytes
monocyte
20-25% of leukocytes
lymphocytes
The system composed of macrophages and monocytes that are attached to endothelial cells
reticuloendothelial system or mononuclear phagocytic system
an increase in what can indicate allergies or infection with parasitic worms
eosinophils
bacterial diseases typically exhibit an increase in the number of
leukocytes and neutrophils
viral infections are associated with an increase in the number of
lymphocytes
movement of a cell either toward a chemical stimulus or away from a chemical stimulus
chemotaxis
The process where phagocytes attach to microorganisms through the binding of complementary chemicals such as glycoproteins found on the membranes of cells
adherence
slippery capsules and M protein are examples of
virulence factors
the process of coating pathogens with either the antimicrobial proteins of complement, or the specific antimicrobial proteins called antibodies
opsonization
proteins of complemennt and specific antimicrobial proteins called antibodies are also called
opsonins
the sac around the microbe is called
phagosome (also called digestive vesicles)
they contain digestive enzymes and other antimicrobial substances in an environment with a ppH of about 4.0 due to the presence of lactic acid
lysosomes
some examples of digestive enzymes within lysosomes
lipases, proteases, nucleases, and a variety of others
after digestion, a phagolysosome is known as a
residual body
a process that is essentially the reverse of ingestion
exocytosis
extracellular killing is accomplished by
eosinophils and natural killer cells
they primarily attack parasitic helminths (worms) by attaching to the worm's surface, often binding to antibodies that themselves have bound to chemicals that are specific to the worm
eosinophils
an abnormally high number of eosinophils in the blood
eosinophilia
NK
Natural killer lymphocytes
a type of nonspecific, defensive leukocyte that works by secreting toxins onto the surfaces of virally infected cells and neoplasms (tumors)
natural killer lymphocytes