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54 Cards in this Set

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endocrine system
uses the circulatory system and chemical messengers called hormones to regulate a number of body functions, including metabolism, growth, reproduction, and water and electrolyte balances
crin/o
to secrete
hypophys/o
pituitary gland
gland
adeno/o
endo-
within
Anterior pituitary hormones
bone - growth hormone (GH), adrenal cortex to protoduce other homones - adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid gland - thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), testis/ovary - gonadotropic hormones (FSH and LH), mammary glands - prolactin (PRL)
Posterior pituitary hormones
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) - kidney tubules, oxytocin (OT) - uterus smooth muscles and mammary glands
hypophysis
pituitary gland
pituitary gland
tiny gland behind the optic nerve, AKA hypophysis, in cranial cavity - called master gland because of its role in controlling the functions of other endocrine glands.
hypothalamus
stimulates anterior lobe of pituitary, or adenohypophysis, to release hormones
posterior lobe of pituitary
neurohypophysis
gonadotrophic hormones
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - stimulates the development of gametes in the respective sexes, luteinizing hormone (LH) - stimulates ovulation in the female and the secretion of sex hormones in both the male and the female, interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) - stimulates production of reproductive cells in the male
Growth hormone (GH) AKA human growth hormone hGH or somatotropin hormone (STH)
Stimulates growth of long bones and skeletal muscle; converts proteins to glucose
Prolactin (PRL) AKA lactogenic hormone
Stimulates milk production in the breast
Thyrotropin AKA thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Stimulates thyroid to release two other thyroid hormones
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water and return it to circulation; is also a vasoconstrictor, resulting in higher blood pressure
Oxytocin (OT)
Stimulates the muscles of the uterus during the delivery of an infant and the muscles surrounding the mammary ducts to contract, releasing milk
thyroid gland
single organ located in anterior part of neck. regulates the metabolism of the body and normal growth and development, and controls the amount of calcium (Ca) deposited into bone
Calcitonin
thyroid gland hormone regulates calcium in bloodstream
Tetraiodothyronine (also called thyroxine T4)
Thyroid gland hormone - Increases cell metabolism
Triiodothyronine (T3)
Thyroid hormone - increases cell metabolism.
Parathyroid glands
four small glands located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland in the neck. Secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) in response to low level of calcium in th eblood. When low, PTH increases calcium by causing it to be released from bone. PTH is inhibited by high levels of calcium.
Adrenal glands (aka suprarenals)
paired one on top of each kidney. Different hormones are secreted by the two different parts, external adrenal cortex and internal adrenal medulla
adrenal medulla
inner portion of adrenal gland produces sympathomimetic hormones that stimulate fight-or-flight response, sympathetic nervous system
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids, sex hormones
Glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol (hydrocortisone)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones - Respond to stress; have antiinflammatory properties
Mineralocorticoids (e.g. aldosterone)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones - Regulate blood volume, blood pressure, and electrolytes by acting on the kidneys
Sex hormones (e.g. estrogen, androgen)
Responsible for secondary sex characteristics
Adrenal Medulla Hormones
Dopamine, Epinephrine (also called adrenaline), and Norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline)
Dopamine
Adrenal Medulla Hormone - Dilates arteries and increases production of urine, blood pressure, and cardiac rate. Acts as a neurotransmitter in the nervous system
Epinephrine (also called adrenaline)
Adrenal Medulla Hormone - Fight or flight - Dialates bronchi, increases heart rate, raises blood pressure, dilates pupils, and elevates blood sugar levels
Norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline)
Adrenal Medulla Hormone - Fight or flight - increases heart rate and blood pressure and elevates blood sugar levels for energy use
Pancreas
Has both exocrine and endocrine functions. Exocrine - release digestive enzymes. Endocrine - variety of types of cells called islets of Langerhans to regulate the level of glucose in the body by stimulating the liver
Islets of Langerhans
Two types of cells to regulate the level of glucose in the body by stimulating the liver: alpha and beta. Alpha produce glucagon to increase glucose, beta secrete insulin to decrease glucose.
Thymus Gland
located in the mediastinum above the heart, releases thymosin responsible for stimulating key cells in the immune response.
Goiter
enlargement of thyroid gland
hirsutism
abnormal hairiness, especially in women. Also called hypertrichosis
Absence of glucose in cells
proteins and fats are broken down, causing excessive fatty acids and ketones in the blood
Ketoacidosis
Excessive amount of ketone acids in the bloodstream
polyphagia
Condition of excessive appetite
acromegaly
Hypersecretion of somatotropin from adenohypphysis during adulthood, leads to an enlargement of the extremities, jaw, nose and forehead. Usually caused by an adenoma of the pituitary gland
polydipsia
condition of excessive thirst
diabetes insipidus (DI)
Undersecretion of ADH from the neurohyppohysis resulting in plydipsia and plyuria
hyponatremia
condition of deficient sodium (Na) in the blood
diabetes melllitus (DM)
Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans) disorder - group of metabolic disorders characterized by high glucose levels due to inadequate insulin, resistance to insulin, or combination of both
Gestational diabetes
Insulin resistance acquired during pregnacy. Usually resolves after birth, although some women develop type 2 diabetes later in life
Hyperinsulinism
Oversecretion of insulin, seen in some newborns of diabetic mothers, causes severe hypglycemia
prediabetes
a condition in which an individual's blood glucose level is higher than normal, but not high enough for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes
type 1 diabetes
Total lack of insulin production resulting in glycosuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, blurred vision, fatigue, and frequent infections. Thought to be autoimmune. Previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
type 2 diabetes
Deficient insulin production, with symptoms similar to type 1. Cause unknown but associated with obesity and family history. Previously called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
phacoemulsification
A method of cataract removal using ultrasonic vibrations to fragment the lens, which is simultaneously irrigated and aspirated.
LASIK
laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis, a kind of laser eye surgery designed to change the shape of the cornea to eliminate or reduce the need for glasses and contact lenses in cases of severe myopia (nearsightedness).
hypernatremia
excessive amounts of sodium in the blood; possibly indicating diabetes insipidus
strabismus
General term for a lack of coordination between the eyes, usually due to muscle weakness or paralysis. Sometimes called a "squint"