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106 Cards in this Set

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The mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods so that nutrients can be absorbed by cells is what?
The digestive system
The digestive system consist of what two things?
The alimentary canal and the accessory organs
What are the accessory organs?
salivary glands, liver , gallbladder, pancreas
What is in the alimentary canal?
mouth pharynx, esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine rectum and anus
What aids in digestion?
the accessory organs
What canal does food actually pass through?
The alimentary canal
What is chemical digestion?
It breaks food into simpler chemicals
What is mechanical digestion?
Breaks large pieces into smaller ones without altering thier chemical composition
What are the two types of motor functions of the alimentary canal?
Mixing and propelling
What happens during mixing?
smooth muscles contract rhythmically in small sections of the tube to mix food with digestive juices
What happens during propelling?
Wavelike motion called peristalsis causes a contraction behind food mass then it relaxes to push food further down tube
What is peristalsis?
A wave like motion in the alimentary canal the pushes food along
Waht is the first portion of the alimentary canal?
The mouth
What part of the alimentary canal begins mechanical digestion by mastication?
The mouth
What forms the lateral walls of the mouth?
The cheeks
What are highly mobile sturctures that surround the mouth opening?
The lips
What is a muscular organ covered by mucus membrane with taste buds?
Tongue
What attatches the tongue to the floor of the mouth?
The frenulum
Where do the two sets of teeth develope?
in the sockets of the mandible and maxilla
how many primary teeth are there?
20
how many secondary teeth are there?
32
What is the function of the teeth?
Grinding cutting and tearing
What teeth grind food?
molars
What teeth cut and tare food?
sizors and canines
Each tooth consist of a ___ and a ____
crown and root
Waht are teeth made of?
enamel and dentine pulp nerves and blood vessels
Waht forms the roof of the oral cavity?
The palate
The anterior palate is what?
Hard palate
The posterior palate is what?
soft palate
What do the salivary glands secrete?
saliva
What is the function of saliva?
moisten and dissolves food particles, binds themtogether allows tasting, and helps to cleanse the mouth and teeth
What part of digestion does saliva begin?
carbohydrate digestion
What three glands do the salivary glands include?
parotid (largest)submandibular(under tongue) and sublingual(lower)
What is the cavity lying behind the mouth?
pharynx
what is the function of the pharynx
digestion and respartory
What two cavities does the pharynx connect
The nasal and oral cavities wiht the larynx and esophagus
What three portions of the pharynx?
The nasopharynx the oropharynx and the largyngopharynx
What is the top portion of the pharynx
The nasopharynx
What is the middle portion of the pharynx?
The oropharynx
What is the bottom portion of the pharynx?
the largyngopharynx
Mucous glands are scattered throughoutthe walls of the?
esophagus
The mucous glands on the walls of the esophagus do what?
produce mucus to moisten and lubricate the inner lining of the tube
What helps to prevent regurgitaion of the stomach contents into the esophagus?
the lowwer esophageal sphincter
What organ is j shaped and it receives and mixes food?
The stomach
What organ propels food into the small intestine?
the stomach
What regions are the stomach divided into?
cardiac, fundic, body and pyloric
What controls the release of food from the stomach into the small intestine?
pyloric sphincter
What is the function of the pancreas?
it has an exocrine funtion of producing pancreatic juice that aids in digetion
What organ is the pancreas closely associated with?
The small intestine
What two ducts join and empty into the small intestine?
The pancreatic and bile ducts
pancreatic juice contains what?
enzymes
What do the enzymes in pancreatic juice do?
digest carbohydrates fats proteins and nucleic acids
What is reddish brown and located in the upper right quadrant of the abdominal cavity?
The liver
What is the largest organ in the abdominal cavity?
the liver
The liver is divided into what?
Right and left lobes (the right lobe being larger)
What portal vein carries blood rich in nutrients to the liver?
The hepatic portal vein
What is the function of the liver?
it is responsible for many medobolic activities, such as carbohydrates lipids
What does the liver store?
glycogen
What filters the blood and removes damaged red blood cells and foreign substances?
the liver
What organ removes toxins?
the liver
What is the livers role in digestion?
to secrete bile
What does the gallbladder do ?
produces bile salts that emulsifies fats into smaller droplets
The small intestine receives secretions from where?
The pancreas, and the liver
What completes the digestion of nutrients?
small intestine
chyme is made where?
small intestine
what transports chyme to large intestine?
small intestine
what three parts do the small intestine consist of ?
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What organ absorbs small amouts of water by osmosis and electrolytes (salts)?
small intestine
What organ absorbs water and electroylytes and forms and stores feces?
Large intestine
What is the pouch at the begining of the large intestine?
cecum
What does the large intestine include?
The cecum colon rectum and anal canal
What opens to the outside as the anus?
the anal canal
what doesn't digest or absorb nutrients?
thelarge intestine
what organ contains bacteria that synthesize vitamins?
large intestine
What are the four layers of the alimentary canal?
Mucosa submucosa and serosa
What is the innermost layer of the alimentary canal?
mucosa
what does the mucosa layer do?
secretion of enzymes and absorpton of food
What is the middle layer of the alimentary canal?
Submucosa
What does the submucosa do?
nourish surrounding tissue carry away absorbed materials
Whatdoes the muscular layer do?
mixes and propels food
what does the serosa layer do?
secretes fluids to keep the canal from sticking to other tissues in the abdominal cavity
The function of the projections of the mucosa of the GI tract is to
enlarge the area available for absorption
The vessels that nourish the tissues of the alimentary canal and carry away absorbed materials are found in the
submucosa
The layer of the wall of the alimentary canal which keeps the outer surface of the alimentary canal moist and slippery is the
serosa
During swallowing, muscles draw the soft palate and uvula upward to
separate the oral and nasal cavities
The teeth that grasp and tear food are the
cuspids
When a bolus of food reaches the end of the esophagus, the lower esophageal sphincter relaxes in response to
arrival of peristaltic waves
The area of the stomach that acts as a temporary storage area for ingested food is the
fundic region
The chief cells of the gastric glands secrete
digestive enzymes
The digestive enzyme pepsin, secreted by gastric glands, begins the digestion of
protein
The foods that stay longest in the stomach are
fatty foods
Pancreatic enzymes travel along the pancreatic duct and, along with the bile duct, join the alimentary canal at the
duodenum
Which of the following liver functions does not concern protein metabolism
forming bile
The function of the gallbladder is to
store and release bile
Which of the following is a function of bile?
emulsification of fats
The velvety appearance of the lining of the small intestine is due to the presence of
villi
Glands within the small intestine produce enzymes that break down
peptides
Which of the following nutrients are absorbed by the lacteals of the villi of the small intestine?
fats
What are the nutrients that enter blood capillaries via intestinal villi
amino acids,monosaccharides electrolytes
The internal and external anal sphincters close the
anus
What contains both smooth and skeletal muscle as well as receptors for temperature and pain.
lips
Skeletal muscle makes up most of the bulk of the tongue true or false?
true
Mucous cells of the gastric glands secrete a thick alkaline substance that coats the lining of the stomach and prevents its digestion by pepsin and hydrochloric acid. trueor false?
true
What cells produce and secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl).
Parietal cells
the root ofthe tongueis covered with rounded masses oflymphatic tissue called?
lingual tonsils
trace path of digestion system
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach,small intestine, large intestine rectum, anus