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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pulmonary Circuit
sends deoxygenated blood to lungs
picks up 02 and unloads CO2
Systemic Circuit
sends ocygen rich blood and nutrients to body cells removes waste
Pericardium
double walled sac
outer bag-fibrous pericardium
inner - serous membrane
Fibrous Pericardium
attaches to diaphragm, sternum, vertebral clumn, and large cessels
Pericardial Cavity
Between visceral and paretal pericardium
contains fluid to reduce friction
Serous Pericardium
underinfalated balloon
Epicardium wall layer of heart
"visceral pericardium"
serous membrane
protective covering
contains capillaries and nerve fibers
Myocardium wall layer of heart
cardiac muscle
contracts to pump blood
Enocardium wall layer of heart
forms protective inner lining of vessels
Atrium
upper chamber "holding tank"
Ventricle
lower chamber "pumper"
Right Atrium
recieves blood from inferior vena cana, superior vena cava, coronary sinus
Right Ventricle
receives blood from right atrium
Left Atrium
reveives blood from pulmonary veins
Left Ventricle
receives blood from left atrium
Tricuspid Valve
Right A-V valve between right atrium and right ventricle
3 taperings
Bicuspid Valve
Left A-V valve between left atrium and left ventricle
2 cusps
"mitral valve"
Pulmonary Valve
semilunar valve
between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
Aortic Valve
semilunar vlave
between left ventricle and aorta
Path of Blood through Heart
blood from systemic circuit -venae cava - r. atrium - r. ventricle - pulmonary trunk - pulmonary arteries - lungs - pulmonary veins - l.atrium - l. ventricle - aorta - blood to systemic ciruit
Systole
contraction
diastole
relaxation
Atrial systole/ Ventricular Systole
blood flows passively into ventricles
remaining 30% of blood pushed into ventricles
a-v valves open/ semi lunar close
Ventricular systole/ Atrial diastole
a-v valves close
atria relaxed
blood flows into atria
ventricular pressure increases and opens semilunar valves
blood flows into pulmonary trunk and aorta
Lubb
first heart sound occurs during ventricular contraction
sound of a-v valves closing
Dupp
2nd heart sound
occurs during ventricular relaxation
semilunar valves closing
murmur
abnormal heart sound caused by blood leaking some place
Sinoatrial Node (SA)
'pacemaker'
in right atrium
doen't require input from nerves
rhythmic
impulse passes through atria to cause simultaneous contraction
atrioventricular (AV) node
located in inferior portion of atrial spetuim
continues conduction pathway rom atria to ventricles
A-V bundle
extends from distal end of AV node
divides r and l bundle branches that pass down interventricular septum
Purkinje Fibers
enlarges ends of AV bundle branches
continue down IV septum, into rest of ventricle and muscles associated with valves
Elecardiogram
recording of electrical changes that occur in the myocardium
used to asses hearts ability to conduct impulses
P wave
when SA node triggers cardiac impulse
leads to atrial contraction
"atrial Depolarization"
QRS wave
whem inpulse reaches ventricular fibers
larger b/c ventricular walls are thicker
'ventricular depolarization'
T wave
ventricular repolarization
Arties
carry blood away from ventricles of heart
arterioles
recieve blood from arteries
carry blood to capillaries
capillaries
sites of exchange of substances between blood and body cells
venules
receieves blood from capillaries
veins
carry blood toward ventricle of heart
Tunica Interna
endothelium
rest of ct membrane rich in elastic and collagenous fibers
smooth surface
TUnica Media
smooth muscle
elastic fibers
Tunica Externa
thin
Ct attaches vessel to surrounding
artery
thck strong wall
enothelial lining
middle layer of smooth muscle and elastic tissu
outer layer of connective tissue
elastic helps carry blood under high pressure
Arterioles
thinner wall than artery
endothelial lining
some smooth muscle tissue
helps control blood flow into capillary
smallest arterioles only have a few smooth muscle fibers
Metarterole
Arteriole that supplies a network of 10-100 capillary
connects arteriole directly with venule
Capillaries
smallest diameter blood vessels
semipermeable
connect smallest aterioles w/ smallest venules
Precapillary sphincters
smooth muscle may close a capillary
resond to need of the cells
low oxygen and nutrients cause sphincter to relax
venule
thinner wall than arteriole
less smooth muscel and elastic tissue than arteriole
vein
thinner wall than artery
three layers to wall but middle layer is poorly developed
s
venous valves
mostly in upper and lower limbs
prevent backflow of blood
venous blood flow
not a direct result of heart action
depends on skeletal muscle contraction
depends on breathing and venoconstriction
blood pressure
force the blood exerts against the inner walls of the blood vessels
Arterial Blood Pressure
rises when ventricles contract
systolic pressure- maximum pressure when ventricles are in systole
diastolic pressure minimum pressure when ventricles are in diastole
pulse
max pressure distend elastic arterial walls
they recoil after ventricular contraction occurs
alternate expanding and recoiling of the arterial wall that can be felt
aorta
largest diameter
extends from left ventricle
arches over heart to elft
descends left and anterior to vertebral column
arches of aorta branch
supplies all blood to head and upper limbs