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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
albumino
protein
bacterio
bacteria
cysto
vesico
bladder or sac
dipso
thirst
glomerulo
glomerulus (little ball)
gluco
glucoso
glyco
sugar
keto
ketono
ketone bodies
litho
stone
meato
meatus (opening)
nephro
reno
kidney
pubo
pubic bone
pyelo
renal pelvis
pyo
pus
uretero
ureter
urethro
urethra
uro
urino
urine
kidneys
two structures located on each side of the lumbar region that filter blood and secrete impurities, forming urine
cortex
outer part of the kidney
hilum
indented opening in the kidney where vessels enter and leave
medulla
inner part of the kidney
calyces
system of ducts carrying urine from the nephrons to the renal pelvis
nephron
micropscopic functional units of the kidney, comprised of kidney cells and capillaries, each capable of forming urine
glomerulus
little ball shaped cluster of capillaries located at the top of each nephron
Bowman's capsule
top part of the nephron that encloses the glomerulus
renal tubule
stem portion of the nephron
ureter
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder
renal pelvis
basin-like portion of the ureter within the kidney
ureteropelvic junction
point of connection between the renal pelvis and upper
urinary bladder
sac that holds the urine
urethra
single canal that carries urine to the outside of the body
urethral meatus
opening in the urethra to the outside of the body
urine
fluid produced by the kidneys containing water and waste products
urea
waste product formed in the liver, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in the urine
creatinine
waste product of muscle metabolism filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in urine
albuminuria
proteinuria
presence of albumin in the urine; occurs in renal disease of in normal urine after heavy exercise
anuria
absence of urine formation
bacteriuria
presence of bacteria in the urine
dysuria
painful urination
enuresis
to void urine; involuntary discharge of urine, most often referes to a lack of bladder control
nocturnal enuresis
bed wetting during sleep
hematuria
presence of blood in the urine
glucosuria
glucose in the urine
incontinence
involuntary discharge of urine or feces
stress urinary incontinence
involuntary discharge of urine at the time of cough, sneeze, and or strained exercise
nocturia
urination at night
oliguria
scanty production of urine
polyuria
condition of excessive urination
pyuria
presence of white cells in the urine, usually indicating infection
urinary retention
retention of urine owing to the inability to void naturally because of spasm, obstruction etc.
adult polycystic kidney disease
inherited condition of multiple cysts that gradually form in the kidney, causing destruction of normal tissue that leads to renal failure -
glomerulonephritis
form of nephritis involving the glomerulus
hydronephrosis
dilation and pooling of urine in the renal pelvis and calyces of one or both kidneys caused by an obstruction in the outflow of urine
nephritis
inflammation of the kidney
pyelonephritis
inflammation of the renal pelvis
nephrosis
degenerative disease of the renal tubules
nephrolithiasis
presence of renal stone caused by mineral buildup in the kidneys- most commonly as a result of hyperuricuria or hypercalciuria
cystitis
inflammation of the bladder
urethritis
inflammation of the urethra
urethrocystitis
inflammation of the urethra and bladder
urethral stenosis
narrowed condition of the urethra
urinary tract infection
invasion of pathogenic organisms in the structures of the urinary tract, especially the urethra and bladder; symptoms include dysuria, urinary frequency, and malaise
uremia
azotemia
excess of urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood as a result of kidney failure
cystometrogram
record that measures urinary volume, bladder pressure, and capacity to evaluate urinary dysfunction such as incontinence
cystoscopy
examination of the bladder using a rigid or flexible cystoscope
kidney biopsy
renal biopsy
removal of kidney tissue for pathological examination
radiography
x-ray studies commonly used in urology
intravenous pyelogram
intravenous urogram
x-rays of the urinary tract taken after iodine is injected into the bloodstream and as the contrast passes through the kidney revealing obstruction, evidence of trauma
kidney, ureter, bladder
abdominal x-ray of kidney, ureter, and bladder typically used as a scout film before doing an IVP
scout film
plain x-ray taken to detect any obvious pathology before further imaging
renal angiogram
x-ray of the renal artery made after injecting contrast material into a catheter in the artery
retrograde pyelogram
x-ray of the upper urinary tract taken after contrast medium is injected up to the kidney by way of a small catheter passed through a cystoscope
voiding cystourethrogram
x ray of the bladder and urethra taken during urination
abdominal sonogram
ultrasound image of the urinary tract including the kidney, ureters, and bladder
urinalysis
physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine
specific gravity
measure of the kidneys ability to concentrate or dilute urine
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
procedure using ultrasound to penetrate the body from outside and bombard and disintegrate a stone within - most commonly used to treat urinary stones above the bladder
kidney dialysis
methods of filtering impurities from the blood to replace the function of one or both kidneys due to renal failure
hemodialysis
method to remove impurities by pumping he patients blood through a dialyzer, the specialized filter of the artificial kidney machine
peritoneal dialysis
method of removing impurities using the peritoneum as the filter; catheter insertion in the peritoneal cavity is required to deliver cleansing fluid that is washed in and out in cycles
Kegal exercises
specific exercises that strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain proper organ replacement and retain urine
urinary catheterization
methods of placing a tube into the bladder to drain or collect urine
straight catheter
inserted through the urethra into the bladder to relieve urinary retention or collet a sterile specimen of urine for testing - removed immediately after procedure
Foley catheter
indwelling catheter inserted through the urethra into the bladder; includes a colletion system that allows urine to be drained into a bag can remain in place for an extended time
suprapubic catheter
indwelling catherter inserted directly int the bladder through an abdominal incision above the pubic obne; includes a collectin system that allows urine to be drained into a bag- used in patients requiring long-term catheterization