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83 Cards in this Set

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change
evolution
earth began
4.6 billion years ago
4 billion years ago
seas/atmosphere forms
oldest rocks
3.9 billion yrs ago
single-celled organism
3.5 billion yrs ago
evidence of an organism that lived long ago
fossil
animal footprint
trace
replica of the organism
cast
minerals make copies
petrified
imprint of something that fell in a sediment
imprints
organism that was trapped in ice or hardened in sap
amber-preserved/frozen
organism buried in sediment then decays leaving an empty space
mold
study fossils/ancient life
palentologists
1. looking at fossil
determine organism
2. look at the leg bone
how it gets around
3. climate
palentologist
4. geography/topography
is it mountainous or not
sedimentary/metamorphic/igneous
3 types of rocks
hot molten/no fossils
igneous
change shape/heat and pressure/no fossils
metamorphic
layers of sediments
sedimentary
chronological order
relative dating
literal date of the rock
radiometric dating
half of the life it takes to make a new substance
half-life
potassium 40 dates back
1.3 billion years
carbon 14 dates back
5730 years
precambrian/paleozoic/cenozoic
4 eras
life explodes in fossil records
cambrian/paleozoic
dinosaurs appear
triasic/mesozoic
ancient arthropods
trilobite
ancestor of today's bird
archaepterayx
continents were once together
theory of pangaea
geological explanation for how the continents move
plate tectonics
dinosaurs dissapear/humans evolve/placental mammals/mammals and birds survive
mesozoic/cenozoic
ideas supported by fossil evidence
charles darwin
job was a naturalist on the
HMS beagle
species compete for everything and the strongest survive
thomas malthus and darwin
breeding organisms with specific traits in order to produce offspring with identical traits/selective breeding
artificial selection
mechanism for change in populations/organisms with certain variations survive, reproduce and pass their variations to the next generation
natural selection
had similar ideas to Darwin
alfred russell wallace
darwins book
origin of the species
any trait that allows a species to survive better
adaption
structural adaption that allowsone species to resemble another
mimicry
helps them blend in with their surroundings
camoflauge
the study of fossils shows that
there was progression and supports the idea that species change
homologous structure/analogous structure
anatomical structure
vestigal structure
functional structure
gill slits/tail/ embryo
embryological development
biochemistry and evolutionary tree
genetic relationships
individuals dont evolve
populations do
gene behavior in a population
population genetics
all alleles of the populations gene
gene pool
% of any specific allele in the gene pool
allelic frequency
frequency of alleles remain the same over generations
genetic equilibrium
mutation/genetic drift/individuals moving into or out of a population/natural selection
disruption of genetic equilibrium
stabilizing/directional/disruptive
3 types of selection
favors average in individuals
stabilizing
favors one of the extreme variations of a trait
directional
individuals have both extremes
distruptive
when members of similar populations cant interbreed to produce
speciation
occurs when a physical barrier divides a population
geographic isolation
when formly interbreeding organisms can no longer mate/produce fertile offspring
reproductive isolation
species with multiples of the normal set of chromosomes
polyploid
gradual build-up of adaptions
gradualism
rapid bursts with long periods of stability in between
punctuated equilibrium
adaptive radiation
patterns of evolutions/darwins finches/ancestral species evolve into an array of species to git a # of diverse habitats
divergent evolution
rhea/emu/ patterns of evolution/pattern of evolution in which species that once were similar to an ancestral species diverge and become increasingly distinct
convergent evolution
whales/ dolphins/pattern of evolution/pattern of evolution in which distantly related organisms evolve similar traits
frequency of alleles remain the same over generations
genetic equilibrium
mutation/genetic drift/individuals moving into or out of a population/natural selection
disruption of genetic equilibrium
stabilizing/directional/disruptive
3 types of selection
favors average in individuals
stabilizing
favors one of the extreme variations of a trait
directional
individuals have both extremes
distruptive
when members of similar populations cant interbreed to produce
speciation
occurs when a physical barrier divides a population
geographic isolation
when formly interbreeding organisms can no longer mate/produce fertile offspring
reproductive isolation
species with multiples of the normal set of chromosomes
polyploid
gradual build-up of adaptions
gradualism
rapid bursts with long periods of stability in between
punctuated equilibrium
adaptive radiation
patterns of evolutions/darwins finches/ancestral species evolve into an array of species to git a # of diverse habitats
divergent evolution
rhea/emu/ patterns of evolution/pattern of evolution in which species that once were similar to an ancestral species diverge and become increasingly distinct
convergent evolution
whales/ dolphins/pattern of evolution/pattern of evolution in which distantly related organisms evolve similar traits