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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 types of immunity
innate (genetically determined, present at birth); acquired (active-follows exposure to antigen; passive-from transfer of antibodies from outside source)
4 general characteristtics of immunity
specificity; versatility; memory; tolerance
properties of specific immunity
specificity (t and b cell membrane receptors recognize a unique antigen); versatility (responsive to millions of antigens); memory (memory cells recall earlier encounters with an antigen); tolerance (ignores body's own antigens)
purpose is to inactivate or destroy...
pathogens, abnormal cells, and foreign molecules
immune response is based on
activation of lymphocytes by specific antigens by antigen recognition
T Cell Activation
antigens processed by macrophages; fragments form comples with MHC proteins on cell surface; T cell recognizes MHC complex, or; viral antigens on infected body cells; activated T cells differentiate further
roles for activated T cells
cytotoxic (killer) T cells-provide cell-mediated immunity; memory T cells-remember activating antigen; suppressor T cells-suppress other T and B cells; helper T cells-secrete regulatory cytokines
B cells and antibody-mediated immunity
b cells are first sensitized by exposure to their antigen; helper t cells for that antigen then activate those b cells; activated b cells divide to form: plasma cells (produce antibodies against that antigen) and memory cells
antibody structure and function
two pairs of parallesl polypeptide chains; four fixed segments (basic structure); four variable segments (specific antigen-binding structure); antigen-antibody complex forms (antigen determinant site binds to antibody)
5 classes of antibodies
lgG, lgM, lgA, lgE, lgD
immunoglobin G
lgG; resistance to pathogens
immunoglobin M
lgM; first antibody secreted
immunoglobin A
lgA; found in glandular secretions
immunoglobin E
lgE; stimulates inflammation
immunoglobin D
lgD; found on surface of B cells
how antibodies can eliminate antigens
neutralization; precipitation; agglutination; complement activation; attraction of phagocytes; stimulation of phagocytosis; stimulation of inflammation
primary immune response
antibodies produced by plasma cells after first exposure to antigen
secondary immune response
max antibody levels produced by subsequent exposure to the same antibody
immune system hormones
interleukins (IL: sensitize T cells, stimulate B cells, enhance non-specific defenses); interferons (slow spread of viruses locally); tumor necrosis factors (TNF: slows growth, kills tumor cells); phagocytic regulators
immune disorders
autoimmune disorders (mistaken attack on body's own tissues); immunodeficiency diease (disease/congenital block of immunity...aids); allergies (inappropriate or excessive response to allergens); age-related loss of effectiveness
organisms that cause disease
lymphatic system
cells, tissues, and organs that play a central role in body's defenses against pathogens
lymphatic system consists of...
vessels filled w/lymph connected to lymphatic organs
lymphatic system functions
produce, maintain, distribute lymphocytes (which attack invading organisms, abnormal cells, foreign proteins); maintain blood volume; help eliminate local variations in interstitial fluid concentration
lymphatic vessels
lymph flows inside; begin as lymphatic capillaries in the tissues; lymph empties into venous system (at thoracic duct, at right lymphatic duct)
3 classes of lymphocytes
T cells (thymus dependent); B cells (bone marrow derived); NK cells (Natural Killer)
types of T lymphocytes
cytotoxic T cells (provide cell-mediated immunity, attack foreign and virus-infected cells); regulatory T cells (helper t cells and suppressor t cells)
B lymphocytes...
can become plasma cells (specific to a particular antigen; produce antibodies that react w/that antigen; antibodies are immunoglobulins); responsible for humoral or antibody-mediated immunity
NK lymphocytes...
provide immunological surveillance, attack cells (foreign/virally-infected/cancerous cells)
lymphocyte life cycle
`continuously migrate btwn lymphoid tissues and blood; production and dvlpmnt (lymphopoiesis) involves: bone marrow, thymus, peripheral lymphoid tissues
lymphoid nodules...
consists of loose connective tissue containing densely packed lymphocytes, tonsils are lymphoid nodules in the pharynx wall
lymphoid organs...
lymph noodes, thymus, spleen; located in areas that are vulnerable to pathogens
lymph nodes...
encapsulated masses of lymphoid tissue containing lymphocytes; monitor and filter lymph; remove antigens; initiate immune response
the thymus...
lies behind the sternum; t cells divide and mature there; shrinks after puberty; produces thymosins (hormones that regulate t cell dvlpmt)
the spleen...
white pulp (resembles lympoid nodules; removes antigens; initiates immunes response); red pulp (contains RBCs, recycles damaged or out-dated RBCs, stores iron from recycled RBCs)
non-specific defenses protect against
any threat
specific defenses protect against
particular threats and responds to antigens
physical barriers...
skin, hair, skin secretions, digestive epithelia and secretions
microphages (neutrophils, eosinophils); macrophages
immunological surveillance
NK cells; find, kill cancer and virus-infected cells
small proteins released by virus infected cells; cytokines that trigger release of anti-viral proteins that inhibit virus production
complement system
complex system of proteins (initiate chain reaction..pos. feedback; destroy target cell membranes; stimulate inflammation, attract phagocytes)
inflammatory response
coordinated non-specific response to tissue injury
temp greater than 99 degrees; inhibits pathogens; accelerates metabolism