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175 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An element is...
A simple substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means.
How many elements are there?
What is the most basic distinction between elements?
The # of protons between elements.
Physical properties of METALS.
-Conducts electricity
-Conducts heat
-Malleable(can be hammered into shape)
-Resists surface deformation(abrasion)
Physical propeties of NON-METALS.
-Does not conduct electricity
-No shine/luster
-Prone to scratches
-Everything the METALS are NOT
The largest uncut diamond in the world is the...
Cullian Diamond (3,106 carats)
The FOUR types of bonds are...
-Covalent: strongest, two same charged particles, found in non-metallic native elements
-Ionic: second strongest, two different charged particles
-Metallic: third strongest, two metals bonded together
-Molecular: weakest, bonds two molecules together, Van der Waals forces
Which is stronger, face- centered cubics or body- centered cubics?
Face centered cubics because there are 6 face-center points rather than 1.
Define Van der Waals forces.
These forces arise from the electrical attraction between non-uniform charge distributions in atoms and molecule enable atoms and molecules to form solids with out sharing or transferring electrons.
Characterize POLAR molecules.
-Has electrical poles
-one end is (+) other end is (-)
-examples are water & ammonia
Characterize NON-POLAR molecules.
-electrons are much more spread out and even, therefore all charges cancel
-examples are carborn dioxide, oxygen and krypton
What kinds of bonds hold together water molecules in ice?
Molecular forces
The four most abundant elements found in the lithosphere or the crust of the earth are...
The MOST abundant mineral family on the earth is...
A mineral is defined as...
A substance that is a crystalline element or compound, has a specific composition, has a unique set of physical properties, and is inorganically formed.
Rock-formed minerals are known as...
Common materials that make up most of the rocks in the Earth's crust.
What is mineralogy?
The study of minerals and their properties.
-The way a mineral shines in reflected light
-Either metallic OR non-metallic
If something is a metallic luster, the choices are...
Metallic(pyrite) OR dull(hornblende)
If something has a non-metallic luster, it can be...
-vitreous(really shiny)
The different types of crystal shapes in minerals are...
The streak of a mineral is the...
Color of its powder.
Cleavage is known as...
The tendency of a mineral to split or seperate along flat surfaces.
Fracture is...
When minerals break along other than cleavage surfaces.
The types of fracture are...
-Conchoidal, or shell-like fracture
-Fibrous, or splintery fra ture leaves a jagged surface with sharp edges
-Uneven or irregular fracture leaves a generally rough surface
The hardness of a mineral is its...
Resistance to being scratched.
List the Mohs' Hardness Scale.
Some common types of minerals and their hardnesses.
5-Steel nail
What is brittleness?
It is the proneness to break when being dropped. For instance, glass is brittle, it is easy to be broken but in reality, it is very hard.
Specific gravity is...
The ratio of the weight of a material to the weight of an equal volume of water, it tells you how many times as dense as water the mineral is.
The formula for specific gravity is...
Specific Gravity = weight of sample in air / weight of equal volume of water
What are silicates?
-Most abundant mineral group
-Most varied and complex
-Most common minerals are feldspars, micas and hornblende
-Covalently bonded
-Silicon + Oxygen
What are carbonates?
-Components of limestone
-Bonded covalently
-Carbon + Oxygen
What are phosphates?
-Bonded covalently
-Apatite is in this group
-Phosphorous + oxygen
-Covalently bonded
What are sulfates?
-Gypsum is in this group
-Bonded covalently
-Ates are...
Two non-metals bonded.
-Ides are...
A metal and a non-metal bonded together.
What are simple oxides?
-Directly bonded with oxygen
-No silicon added
-Quartz is in this group
-Ionic bonds
What are sulfides?
-Directly bonded to sulfur
-Often have a very high metallic luster
-Similar to oxides
What is a native element?
-Metallically bonded
-Two metals bonded together
-galena, flourite, gold, diamond, garnet
Cubic, symmetrical faces
-chalcopyrite, zircon, tin
Long, slender and needle-like
-sapphire, ruby
Flattened, sharp edges, and thin cross-sections
-sulfur, topaz, olivine
Short and stubby, with diamond shape or rectangular cross-sections
-quartz, calcite, tourmaline, apatite, beryl
Columnar, rounded triangular or hexagonal cross-sections
-muscovite mica, malachite
Stubby with tilted matching faces with opposite ends forming a distorted rectangular solid
What are cat ions?
When a molecule loses electrons and gains protons
What are anion ions?
When something gains electrons.
The max. postive and negative charges are...
+3, -3
Being ionicly bonded is...
Having a neutral charge
The two concepts of UNIFORMITARIANISM are...
1) geological processes now at work were also active in the past
2) present physical feautres of the Earth were formed by these same processses, at work over long periods of time
A rock is...
A group of minerals bound together in some way
The three type of rocks are called...
Igneous rocks are formed by...
The cooling and hardening of hot molten rock from inside the earth.
Plutonic, or intrusive rock is...
Rock that form underground form cooled magma.
What is lava?
Magma that pours into the earth's surface during a volcanic eruption.
Volcanic, or extrusive rock is...
Rock that forms when lava cools.
What is magma?
Hot, molten rock
The different types of magma are...
The two types of igneous rock are...
Felsic rocks are...
Mostly plutonic
Mafic rocks are...
Mostly volcanic
Are igneous rocks primary or secondary?
Igenous rocks are hard or soft?
Where do igneous rocks develop from?
All 3 regions of the earth; at the surface of the earth, packed in the earth, or in the middle of the earth
Igneous rocks are mostly composed of...
Quartz, Mica, Feldspar, and Hornblende
The main textures found in igneous rocks are...
Explain a porphry.
An igneous rock with two distinctly different textures.
Of which textures belong to the intrusive family?
Of which textures belong to the extrusive family?
Sedimentary rocks are formed by...
litification- fragments with pressure, then you cement them together
The kinds of sediments/textures that a sedimentary rock can be are...
Clastic- fragments of other rocks

Chemical- formed from mineral grains that fall out of a solution by evaporation or by chemical action

Organic- formed from the remains of plants and animals
Are sedimentary rocks primary or secondary?
Where are sedimentary rocks developed?
Either at the surface or slightly buried.
Sedimentary rocks are usually created by...
Are sedimentary rock soft or hard?
The typical colors of sedimentary rocks are...
Earth tones.
The typical cementing agents for a sedimentary rock is...
Iron Compounds
The glassy texture is formed by...
Magma/lava cooled quickly at the surface.
The fine-grained texture is formed by...
Magma/lava cooled slowly near the surface.
The coarse-grained texture is formed by...
Magma/lava cooled very slowly, usually at great depths.
The vesicular texture is formed by...
Felsic lava that was still bubbling when steam and gases were coming out of it, and it hardened.
What is stratification?
Arrangement in visible layers.
What are fossils?
The remains, inpressions, or any other evidence of plants and animals preserved in rock.
Chert is...
Lumps(nodules) of fine-grained silica.
Concretions are known as...
Round masses of calcium carbonate.
Flint is...
Chert that is dark gray or black.
Metamorphic rocks are formed by...
Regional metamorphisim
Contact metamorphism
What is regional metamorphism?
-When large areas of rock are under intense heat and pressure
-Most metamorphic rocks are formed through this process
What is contact metamorphism?
The process when hot magma forces its way into overlying rock.
The textures that a metamorphic rock can have are...
Foliation is defined as...
Parallel layers due to pressure.
What is an active volcano?
One that is emitting gases and other debris type stuff from time to time.
What is a dormant volcano?
One that has erupted within human history, but has stayed dormant ever since.
What is an extinct volcano?
A volcano that has not erupted during human history.
Describe a cindercone volcano.
-The result fo explosive ejection of cinders, ash, and other pyroclastic material
-Lassen Volcanic Park, California
Describe a shield volcano.
-Result of repeated eruptions of lava flows which spread out from the vent area
-Very wide
-Composed of basaltic flows
-Hawaiian Islands and Iceland
Describe a composite/stratovolcano.
-Extremely tall volcanoes
-Pyroclastic ejecta
-They are tall, but rather skinny, not as big as shield volcanoes
-Mt. Fuji, Popocatepetl, most other volcanoes
-Most abundant type of volcano
What causes an eruption?
Plate/oceanic tectonic plates that cause pressure and heat build-up, and the need of release of pressure.
What is a hotspot?
When magma is able to get closer to the surface than normal, and can create islands.
Pyroclastic residue is...
Fire and fragments of rock, with the compression of heat and pressure.
What are halides?
A salt of any halogen acid.
Flourescence is...
The ability to glow under an ultraviolet light.
Phosphorescent is...
The ability to glow even when there is no ultraviolet light present.
Double refraction is...
The ability to see two images when you look throught the crystal/mineral.
An example is calcite.
Ferromagnesian minerals contain...
Both magnesium and iron.
What are the two basic types of weathering?
Define exfoliation.
Peeling of surface layers.
Mechanical weathering is...
When a rock is split or broken into smaller pieces of the same material without changing its composition.
Chemical weathering is...
When the rock's minerals are changed to different substances.
Ice wedging is...
frost action
Water held in the cracks of rock wedges the rocks split apart when it freezes.
What is the water table?
It is the surface of the zone of saturation.
What is the sone of saturation?
It is the part of the ground where all the pore spaces are filled with water such as rain water.
What is the zone of aeration?
It is the zone that can still hold water, still has pore spaces, and still can enter into this region. Located from the water table to the surface.
Hard water is known as...
This water contains a relatively high substantial amount of ions that dissolve form mineral matter, such as calcium, magnesium or iron.
Evapotranspiration is...
A combo of evaporation and transpiration, which is when the rain returns to the air by evaporation from the ground or by transpiration from plant leaves.
A paint pot is...
Hot water which comes up through hot, sticky clays which result in a sputtering spring.
Fumaroles are...
Fissures in the ground from which steam and hot gases escape.
Geysers are...
Boiling hot springs that periodically erupt as gushers of hot water and steam.
Sinkholes are...
These form when parts of a cave roof collapses which form depressions or hole in the Earth's surface.
Caverns are...
These form when limestone which start the cracks get so large that they form networks of underground tunnels.
A natural bridge is...
When formed, a surface river disappears into a fissure in the bedrock, runs underground a short distance, and then gushes out of a crack on the face of a cliff. As the fissure and crack get larger, part of the cliff is left as a natural bridge.
Stalagmites are...
Located on the floor underneath the stalactites, they are blunt, round masses.
Stalactites are...
Deposits shaped like icicles which hang from the roof along the routes of dripping water.
Dripstone is...
A calcite deposit formed from dripping water in caverns. Stalagmites, stalactites and pillars are examples.
Travertines are...
Calcite deposits around mineral springs.
A geyserite is...
A white porous substance that is deposited around the openings of geysers.
Petrified wood is defined as...
Formed when minerals dissolve in ground water and replace the decaying wood of buried trees, eventually mostly consist of silica.
A thalwag is defined as a...
The deepest point in a channel.
Riffles are defined as...
The shallower, moving faster sections of a stream.
A meander is...
A bend in a river.
A tributary is...
Is a stream or river which flows into another river (a parent river) or body of water.
Watersheds are...
drainage basins
The area, or all of the land that includes a river and its tributaries.
Characteristics of youthful streams are...
-V shaped
-runs very fast
-has the steepest gradient
-no floodplain
Chracteristics of mature streams are...
-not as steep
-starts to meander
-starts to create flood plain with wind and erosion
Characteristics of ancient streams are...
-wide floodplain, bed and channel
-not very steep at all
-starts to have oxbow lakes
Rapids are...
Section of a river where it loses elevation over a relatively short distance (that is, the stream gradient is locally steepened), causing an increase in water flow and (usually) turbulence
Floodplains are...
Is flat or nearly flat land adjacent to a stream or river that experiences occasional or periodic flooding.
An oxbow lake is...
Deposits that completely seperate the meander form the river.
A continental divide is...
The high land that separates one gully or one river from the next.
A gully is...
Is a landform created by running water eroding sharply into soil, typically on a hillside. It usually forms a small valley.
A alluvial fan is...
A fan-shaped deposit formed where a fast flowing stream flattens, slows, and spreads typically at the exit of a canyon onto a flatter plain.
A delta is...
When a great river has a level, fan-shaped deposit at their mouths.
Headward erosion is...
The wearing away of land at the head of the gully or stream valley.
A pothole is...
A type of basin, a disruption in the surface of a roadway where a portion of the road material has broken away. leaving a hole
Plunge pools are...
Very large potholes.
Undermining is the process in which...
Streams erode at waterfalls.
Entrenched meanders are...
Deep canyons that have meandering courses that are found in some high plateaus.
Levees are...
Thick deposits that build-up alongside the stream banks which form elevated ridges.
Bed load is...
Sediment moved along the stream bed.
Solution is...
Material that has dissolved from bedrock.
Suspension is...
Stirred up and kept sinking by the turbulence of the stream flow, even these materials are heavier than water.
What are the three ways that rivers carry sediment?
Bed load
What is stream discharge?
How much water flows through a particular point in a eriod of time.
What is stream velocity?
How fast a stream flows per unit of time.
How are U-shaped valleys produced?
By glacial erosion.
How are V-shaped valleys produced?
By river erosion.
What is a valley glacier?
alpine glacier
Long, slow moving wedge-shaped stream of ice, much smaller than continental and is kinda in a stream.
What are continental glaciers?
ice sheet
Moving masses of chunks of ice far greater than valley glaciers.
Ice sheets are...
Also known as continental glaciers.
Firns are...
Rough granular ice material that is composed of clay, silt, sand and gravel.
Calving is...
The process of great blocks of ice breaking off to become icebergs.
A crevasse is...
A great fissure or crack that forms from the width of a glacier.
A moraine is...
Large amounts of rock build-up in several areas of a moving glacier.
A drift is...
Any deposit of glacial origin.
Till is...
An even layer of clay, silt, and gravel.
Outwashes are...
All the deposits that are made by streams of glacial meltwater.
Cirques are...
A semi-circular basin that is formed on the head of a glacial valley.
Aretes are...
The narrow and sharp divide in between two cirques.
Horns are...
A spectacular pyramid shape that is carved out by the formation of three or more cirques.
A glacial trough is...
A glacial valley that is nearly U-shaped and is made form scouring away rock that make the valley walls nearly vertical.
What is an drumlin?
Long, canoe-shaped hills that are made of till, they come from kames.
What is a kame?
Small, cone-shaped hills of stratified sand and gravel.
What is a esker?
Long winding ridges that are formed from melting glacies.
What is kettle?
It is a circular holloe found on terminal moraines and outwash plains.