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41 Cards in this Set

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What are Capillary beds?
exchange of nutrients and respiratory gases occur between the blood and tissue fluid around the cells
What are arteries?
carry blood away from the heart, help maintain blood pressure
What are veins?
carry blood towards the heart, are very low pressure
What are capillaries?
carry blood from tiny arterioles to tiny venules, called "exchage vessels"
The ___________ carries blood out of the left ventricle
Aorta
The __________ carries blood to the right atrium
Venae Cava
What are the three layers in blood vessels?
Tunica Intima - Endothelium
Tunica Media - smooth muscle and elastic tissue
Tunica Externa- Connective tissue, very strong to withstand pressure
How do veins prevent back flow?
Valves
What are cappilaries made of?
Tunica Intima, only one layer, and precapillary sphincters guard the entrance to the capillaries
Hardening of the arteries is called?
Arteriosclerosis
Decreased blood supply to tissue is called ___________, eventually leading to tissue death,__________, when this tissue decays its called_______
ischemia
necrosis
gangrene
Hardening or the arteries due to fatty deposits is called?
Arterosclerosis, high in triglycerides and cholesterol
What are aneurysms
a section on an artery has become abnormally widened because of a weakening of the arterial wall, thrombi (abnormal clot), can cause embolus,
A brain anuerysm may lead to....
stoke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
Varicose Veins are?
veins in which blood tends to pool rather than continue on towards the heart
Varicosities (varices) occur in?
superficial veins near the surface of the body
Veins dilate due to pooling of blood thus causing?
space between valve flaps making them incompetent (leaky)
Hemorrhoids (piles) are caused by?
varicose veins in the rectum
Phlebitis is?
vein inflmmation, caused usually by irritation by an intravenous catheter
Thrombophlebitis is?
caused by a clot formation, acute phlebitis
A pulmonary embolism is?
an embolus lodged in the circulation of the lung
Left Ventricle > Aorta > Arteries > Tissues and Organs > veins > Inferior + Superior vena cava > Right atrium is which type of circulation
Systemic - to the body
right atrium > right ventricle > pulmonary artery > lung arterioles + capillaries > exchange gases > four pulmonary veins > left atrium > left ventricle
pulmonary circulation, to the lungs for Oxygen
What is the hepatic protal circlation, what is its functions?
veins from intestinal tract filter into liver, sent through a second capillary bed to absorb glucose for storage, and remove poisonous substances
Blood vessels carry the fetal blood to the placenta it has 3 main vessels what are they?
two small umbilical arteries - oxygen poor
1 small umbilical vein - oxygen rich
What is the ductus venosus
serves as a shunt, allowing most of the blood returning from the placenta to bypass immature liver of the baby
What is the foramen ovale
Shunts blood from R atrium direclty into L atrium
What is the ductus arteriosus
connects aorta and pulmonary artery
high blood pressure
hypertension
the direct cause of bloop pressure
amount of blood in the vessels, strength and rate of heartbeat affects the cardiac output and BP
An increase in heart rate usually results in less blood being pushed into what chamber of the heart?
Left ventricle
increased rbc's and increased blood viscosity is called
polycythemia
venous BP within the R atrium is called
central venous pressure
5 mechanisms to keep venous blood moving back through circulatory system
1)continued beating
2)adequate blood pressure
3)semilunar valves in veins
4)contraction of skeletal muscles
5)changing pressures in the chest cavity during breathing
The pulse is caused by
artery expanding and then recoiling alternatively can be felt over anartery that lies near the surface of the body
circulatory shock is
failure to deliver oxygen to tissues
Cardiogenic shock is
heart failure, heart infections
Hypovolemic shock is
loss of blood volume, for eg. due to hemmorhaging
Neurogenic shock is
widespread of dilation of blood vessles caused by an imbalance in autonomic effectors, such as smooth muscle in vessel walls
Anaphylactic shock is
acute type of allergic reaction
Septic shock is
complications from septicemia, infectious agents release toxins into the blood