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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define *Personality*?
A distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives and emotions that characterizes an individual through life.
What is a *Trait*?
A characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling.
What is an *Objective Test(Inventories)*?
Standarized questionnaires requiring written responses; they typically include scale on which people are asked to rate themselves.
What is a a *Central Trait*?
Primary traits, normally 5 to 10, that reflect a characteristic way of behaving, dealing with others, and reacting to new situations.
Waht is a *Secondary Trait*?
Traits that are more changeable, i.e. music preferences, habits, casual opinions, etc.
What is *Factor Analysis*?
A statistical method for analyzing the intercorrelations among various measures or test scores; clusters of measures or scores that are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same underlying trait or ability (Factor).
What are the *Big 5* factors of personality?
1. Extroversion vs. introversion, 2. Neuroticism vs. emotional stability, 3. Agreeableness vs antagonism, 4. Conscientiousness versus impulsiveness, 5. Openness to experience vs. resistance to new experience.
Describe *Extroversion vs. Introversion*,
The extent to which peopal are outgoing or shy.
Describe *Neuroticism vs. Emotional Stability*?
The extent to which a person suffers from such traits as anxiety, inability to control impulses, and a tendency to feel negative emotions i.e. anger, scorn, resentment.
Describe "Agreeableness vs
Describes to the extent to which people are good-natured or irritable.
Describe *Conscientiousness versus impulsiveness*:
Describes the degree to which people are responsible or undependable.
Describe *Openness to experience vs. resistance to new experience*:
Describes the extent to which people are curious, imaginative, questioning and creative, or conforming, unimaginative, predictable, and uncomfortable with novelty.
What are *Temperaments*?
Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways; they are present in infancy and are assumed to be innate.
What is the *Nonshared Environment*?
Unique aspects of a person's environment and experience that are not shared with family members.
Define *Reciprocal determinism*:
In social-cognitive theories, the two-way interaction between aspects of the environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits.
*Culture* is?
A program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society, and a set of values, beliefs, adn attitudes shared by most members of that community.
*Culture* is?
A program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society, and a set of values, beliefs, adn attitudes shared by most members of that community.
What are *Individualist Cultures*?
Cultures in which the self is regarded as autonomous, and individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others.
What are *Collective Cultures*?
Cultures in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships, and harmony with one's group is prized above individual goals and wishes.
A *Monchronic* culture is?
A culture in which time is organized sequentially; schedules and deadlines are valued over people.
A *Polychronic Culture* is?
A culture in which time is organized horizontally, people tend to do several things at once and value relationships over schedules.
What is *Psychoanalysis*?`
A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy developed by Sigmund Freud; it emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts.
What are *Psychodynamic theories*?
Theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics within the individual.
What is *Intrapsychic*?
Within the mind (psyche) or self.
In Frued's theory, personality consists of three major systems, what are they?
The id, the ego, and the superego.
What is *id*?
The reservoir of unconscious psychological energies and the motives to avoid pain and obtain pleasure.
What is *Libido*?
In psychoanalysis, the psychic energy that fuels the life or sexual energy of the id.
What is *Ego*?
In psychoanalysis, the part of the personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self-control.
What is the *Superego*?
In psychoanalysis, the part of the personality that represents conscience, morality, and social standards.
What are *Defense mechanisms*?
Methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness.
Waht are the six primary defenses?
1. Repression, 2. Projection, 3. Displacement, 4. Reaction Formation, 5. Regression, 6. Denial
*Repression* occurs when?
A threatening idea, memory, or emotion is blocked from the consciousness.
*Projection* occurs when?
A person's own unacceptable or threatening feelings are repressed and then attributed to someone else.
*Displacement* occurs when?
People direct their emotions (especially anger) toward things, animals, or other people that are not the real object of their feelings.
*Reaction formation* occurs when?
A feeling that produces unconscious anxiety is transformed into its opposite consciousness.
*Regression* occurs when?
A person reverts to a previous phase of psychological development.
*Denial* occurs when?
People refuse to admit that something unpleasant is happening.
What is an *Oepidus Complex*?
In psychoanalysis, a conflict occurring in the phallic (Oedipal) stage, in which a child desires a parent of the opposite sex and views the same-sex parent as a rival.
What is the *collective unconsciousness*?
In Jungian theory, the universal memories and experiences of humankind, represented in the symbols, stories, and images (archetypes) that occur across all cultures.
What is an *Archetype*?
Universal, symbolic images that appear in myths, art, stories and dreams; to Jungians, the represent the collect unconsciousness.
What is the *Object-relations school*?
A psychodynamic approach that emphasizes the importance of the infant's first two years of life and the baby's formative relationships, especially with the mother.
The *Anima* represents the:
feminine archetype in men.
The *Animas* represents the:
Masculine archetype in woman.
What is *Unconditional positive regard*?
To Carl Rogers, love or support given to another person with no conditions attached.