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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
paraplegia
paralysis of lower limbs
quadriplegia
paralysis of all four limbs, respiratory paralysis, loss of sensation or motor control, disorders of bladder, bowel and sexual function
hemiplegia
paralysis of one side of the body only
conduction
bundles of fibers passing information up and down spinal cord, connecting different levels of the trunk with each other and with the brain
locomotion
walking involves repetitive, coordinated actions of several muscle groups
central pattern generators
are pools of neurons providing control of flexors and extensors that cause alternating movements of the lower limbs
reflexes
involuntary, stereotyped responses to stimuli, withdrawal of hand from pain, involves brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves
spinal cord
cylinder of nervous tissue that arises from the brainstem at the foramen magnum of the skull
segment
part of the spinal cord supplied by each pair of spinal nerves
medullary cone
cord tapers to a point inferior to lumbar enlargement
cauda equina
bundle of nerve roots that occupy the vertebral canal from L2 to S5
meninges
three fibrous connective tissue membranes that enclose that brain and spinal cord
dura mater
forms loose fitting sleeve around spinal cord, tough, collagenous membrane surrounded by epidural space filled with fat, blood vessels, and loose connective tissue
arachnoid mater
layer of simple squamous epithelium lining
pia mater
delicate, translucent membrane that follows the contours of the spinal cord
spina bifida
congenital defect in which one or more vertebrae fail to form a complete vertebral arch for enclosure of the spinal cord
folic acid
as part of a healthy diet for all women of childbearing age reduces risk, of things like spina bifida
gray matter
neuron cell bodies with little myelin. site of information processing- synaptic intergration
white matter
abundantly myelinated axons, carry signals from one part of the CNS to another, tracts for sensory information from the body to the brain
ascending tracts
carry sensory information up the spinal cord
descending tracts
carry motor information down the spinal cord
decussation
as the fibers pass up or down the brainstem and spinal cord they cross over from the left to the right side and vise versa
contralateral
when the origin and destination of a tract are on opposite sides of the body
ipsilateral
when the origin and destination of a tract are on the same side of the body
first order neurons
detect stimulus and transmit signal to spinal cord or brainstem
second order neurons
continues to the thalamus at the upper end of the brainstem
third order neurons
carries the signal the rest of the way to the sensory region of the cerebral cortex
spinocerebeller tracts
carry proprioceptive signals from limbs and trunk up to the cerebellum, first order neurons originate in the muscles and tendons, second order nerves ascend spinocerebellar tracts and end in cerebellum, provide cerebellum with feedback needed to coordinate muscle action
descending tracts
carry motor signals down the brainstem and spinal cord
upper motor neuron
originate in cerebral cortex or brainstem and spinal cord
lower motor neuron
in brainstem or spinal cord
poliomyelitis (polio)
destroys motor neurons in brainstem and anterior horn of spinal cord, signs include muscle pain, weakness, and loss of some reflexes. Virus spread by fecal contamination in water
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)- Lou Gehrig Disease
destruction of motor neurons and muscular atrophy, also scarring of lateral regions of the spinal cord, early signs are muscular weakness, difficulty speaking, swallowing, and use of hands
sensory nerves
carry signals from sensory receptors to the CNS
motor nerves
carry signals from CNS to muscles and glands
mixed nerves
consists of both afferent and efferent fibers
ganglion
cluster of neurosomas outside the CNS
anterior ramus
innervates the anterior and lateral skin and muscles of the trunk
posterior ramus
innervates the muscles and joints in that region of the spine and the skin of the back
meningeal branch
reenters the vertebral canal and innervates the meninges, vertebrae and spinal ligaments
radial nerve injury
passes through axilla, crutch paraysis, wrist drop
sciatic nerve injury
sciatica- sharp pain that travels from gluteal region along the posterior side of the thigh and leg to ankle, ninety percent of cases result from herniated intervertebral disc, or osteoporosis of lower spine
chickenpox
common disease of early childhood cause by varicella zoster vrius, produces itchy rash.
shingles
localized disease caused by the virus traveling down the sensory nerves by fast axonal transport when immune system is compromised
dermatome
a specific area of the skin that receives sensory input from a pair of spinal nerves
dermatome map
a diagram of the cutaneous regions innervated by each spinal nerve
reflexes
quick involuntary stereotyped reaction of glands or muscles to stimulations
somatic reflexes
since they involve the somatic nervous system
somatic receptors
in skin,muscles, or tendons
afferent nerve fibers
carry information from receptors to posterior horn of spinal cord or the brainstem
intergrating center
a point of synaptic contact between neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord or brainstem, determines whether the efferent neurons issue a signal to the muscles
efferent nerve fibers
carry motor impulses to skeletal muscle
skeletal muscles
the somatic effectors carry out the response
muscle spindle
stretch receptors embedded in skeletal muscles
proprioceptors
specialized sense organs to monitor the position and movement of the body parts
intrafusal fibers
muscle fibers within spindle
nerve fibers
in muscle spindle
stretch reflex
when a muscle is stretched it 'fights back' and contracts which maintains increased tonus, making it stiffer than unstretched muscle
tendon reflex
reflexive contraction of a muscle when its tendon is trapped
reciprocal inhibition
reflex phenomenon that prevents muscles from working against each other by inhibiting the antagonist
tendon organs
proprinoceptors in a tendon near its junction with a muscle
tendon reflex
in response to excessive tension on the tendon