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29 Cards in this Set

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result of when behaviorism was combined **with logical positivsm. **
Edward C. Tolman
Purposive behaviorism, intervening variables,
Latent Learning, Latent Extinction
Disagreed with Watson and Thorndicke's explanation of learning.
Latent Learning
Learning that occurs but is not translated into behavior
Latent Extinction
Animals who passively experience a goal boz no longer containing reinforcement, extinguish a previously learded response to that goal box significantly faster than animals without suh experience.
Clark Hull
4 methods for scientific research, Reinforcement, Reaction potential, Habit Strength, Theory with great amont of research.
4 methods for scientific research:
- Simple observation
- Systematic controlled obsercation
- Experimental testing of hypotheses
- Hypothetico-Deductive Theory
Hypothetico-deductive Theory
Set of potulates from which empirical relationships are deduced. If the empirical relationships are as predicted, the theory gains strngth; if not, the theory loses strength and must be revised or abandoned.
Edwin R. Guthrie
Law of Contiguity, Rejected Law of Frequency, One-Tril Learning, Breaking Habits.
"Law of Contiguity"
Hull's proposed mechanism of reinforcement. Anything that reduces a drive is reinforcing.
B.F. Skinner
Functional Analysis of Behavior

Psychology should study the functional relationship between environmental events, reinforcement contigencies and behavior.
2 types of Behavior
- Respondent Behavior
- Operant Behavior
Operant Behavior
Influenced by consequences.
Behavior that is emitted by an organism rather than elicted by a known stimulus.
Oper, opertional. Doing things for a child to operate the way u want.
Positive Reinforcement
Introducing something "added"
Negative Reinforcement
Taking away something
Schedules of Reinforcement
- Fixed Interval (time)
- Variable Interval
- Fixed Ratio
- Variable Ratio
Gestalt Psychology
German Word meaning "Whole" or "Form"
- Studies whole, inctact segments of behavior and cognitive experience
- Issues with Wundt's elementism
Philosopher/antecedent views
- Kant
- Mach (Space and Time form)
- Von Ehrenfels (Form emerges from sensation. "Gestalt")
- William James (Consciouness)
- Act Psychology (Bruno & Stumph Influenced Gestalt, experience as a whole)
Founders of Gestalt Psychology
- Max Wertheimer
- Phi phenomenon
- Kurt Koffka
- Wolfgang Kohler
Basic Principles of Gestalt Psychology
* Field Theory
* Psycolophsyical Isomorphism
* Top Down Analysis
* Law of Pragnanz
* Percetual Constancy
* Principles of Perceptual Organization
Law of Pragnanz
Reality is organized or reduced to the simplest form possible
Olympic circles
Law of Proximity
Objects near each other tend to be grouped together.
Law of Continuity
Lines are seen as following the smoothest path.
Law of Closure
Objects grouped together are seen as a whole
Explanations of Learning
- Insight Learning
- Transposition
- Productive Thinking (Think about Principles)
Lewin's Field Theory
Life Space (Influences of psychological facts, external events, exist in awarness)
Conflict - Application of the theory
- Approach - Approach (Getting accepted to 2 schools)
- Avoidance - Avoidance (Studying)
- Approach - Avoidance (mixed feelings)
Group Dynamics - Application of the Theory
- Democratic
- Authoritarian
- Laissez- Faire
Expressive Aphasia
Receptive Aphasia