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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
_____located at the begining of the pulmonary,allow blood going the lungs to flow out of the right ventricle, prevent flow back to ventricle?
the pulmonary semilunar valve
_____located at the beginning of the aorta, allow blood to flow out of the left ventricle up into aorta, and prevent backflow?
the aortic semilunar valve
allow some blood flowing back into the chamber?
incompetent valve leak
_____valves that are narrower than normal, slowing the heart flow?
stenosed vavles
______cardiac damage delayed inflammatory by streptococcal infection most in children?
rheumatic heart disease
untreated streptococcal infection, the cardiac valves and other tissues lead to?
rheumatic fever
severe inflammation of_____ caused by streptococcal infection result in stenosis or deformities of the valve, chordae tendinae or myocardium?
cardiac valves
1.____has genetic basis but result from rheumatic fever?
2.______the flab extend back into the left atrium, causing incompletence(leaking) of the valve
1. mitral valve prolapse ( affecting the bicuspid or mitral valve)
2. prolapsed mitral valve
abnormal heart sound called____caused by disorder of the valves?
heart murmurs
when the heart beats first, the atria contract simultaneously. this is___?
atrial systole
blood enters the right atrium through two large___?
superior vena cava and inferior vena cava
the right atrium receives__?
oxygen-poor blood
when the right ventricle contract, blood pumps through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the____?
pulmonary artery and to the lungs, where oxygen is added and carbon dioxide is lost
rich oxygen blood return to the left atrium through___?
four pulmonary veins, then passes through left AV or bicuspid into the left ventricle
the left ventricle contracts, blood force through aortic seminular valve into____?
the aorta and distributed to the body.
the delivery of oxygen and nutrient rich arterial blood to cardiac muscle tissue and return of oxygen poor blood from active tissue to the venous system, is called?
coronary circulation
blood flows into the heart muscle by____?
the right and left coronary arteries
blood cannot pass through the occluded vessel and cannot reach the heart muscle cell because of___?
coronary thrombosis and coronary embolism plugs up some part of a coronary artery
deprived of oxygen, cells soon die, called?
myocardial infarction (tissue death)
coronary arteries become blocked as a result of___?
atheroclerosis, "hardening of the arteries" (ligpids build up on the inside wall)
myocardial infarction (MI) also referred as?
heart attack, a common cause of death
risk factor associated with coronary atherosclerosis___?
cigarette smoking, high-fat, high cholesterol diets,obesity, hypertension, and diabetes
___describes the severe chest pain when myocardium has not enough oxygen
angina pectoris
____common treatment for those who suffer from severely restricted coronary artery blood flow?
coronary bypass surgery
"harvested" or removed from other areas of the body and bypass partial blockage in coronary arteries and also treat blockages to coronary blood flow, called__?
coronary angioplasty
each complete heart beat called__?
cardiac cycle
cardiac cycle includes?
systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of atria and ventricles
each complete cycle takes about__?
0.8 seconds if 72 beat/min
valve disorder, coronary artery blockage, or myocardial infarction can decrease___?
stroke volume
decreased cardiac output can result___?
fatigue or death
the cardiac muscle fiber contract rhythmically when___?
coordinated by electrical impulses
the rate of the cardiac muscle rhythm controlled by___?
autonamic nerve signals
the electrical link that join muscle fibers into a single unit that conduct throughout the heart w/o stopping?
intercalated disks
four structures embedded in the wall of the heart are to generate and conduct strong impulse to region of heart wall?
1. sinoatrial node(SA) or pacemaker
2. atrioventricular(AV) node
3. AV bundle or bundle His
4. Purkinje fiber
electrical signals can be picked up from the body surface and surface and transformed into visible tracing by and instrument, called___?
____is the graphic record of the heart's ecletrical activity?
electrocardiogram or ECG
a normal ECG has three characteristic deflections or waves?
P wave, QRS complex, and T wave
P wave, QRS complex and T wave represnt___?
electrical activity that regulates the contraction or relaxation of the atria or ventricles.
___describes the electrical activity that triggers contraction of the heart muscle?
___begin before the relaxation phase of cardiac muscle activity?
P wave occurs with____?
depolarization of the atria
the QRS complex occurs as___?
result of depolarization of the ventricles
T wave results from electrical activity generated by___?
repolarization of the ventricles
endocarditis or myocardial infarction can damge the heart's conduction system and disturb the rhythmic beating; the abnormal heart rhythm is called__?
rhythm abnormalities is called?
dysrhythmia is also called?
heart block
in AV node block,impulses are blocked from getting through to the ventricular myocardium, resulting from slower rate than normal?
heart block
___occurs when the P waves do not match up with the QRS complex?
complete heart block
treat heart block by implanting in the heart an___?
artificial pacemaker ( a battery operated device under the skin)
___slow heart rhythm below 60 beats/min, during sleep?
___take over SA node function only when the heart rate falls below programmed level
demand pacemaker
____rapid heart rhythma over 100 beat/min?
improper autonomic control of the heart, blood loss or shock, the action of drugs and toxin and fever cause__?
abnormal tachycardia
___is a variation in heart rate during the breathing cycle?
sinus dysrhythmia
___contractions that occur before the expected contraction in a series of cardiac cycle?
premature contraction or extrasystoles
___occurs shortly after the ventricle contract- an early P wave on the ECG
premature atrial contractions
premature contraction occur with lack of___
sleep, too much caffeine or nicotine, alcoholism or heart damage
frequent premature contraction can lead to___?
____a condition in which cardiac muscle fibers contract out of step with each other such as absence of P wave in ECG or abnormal QRS or T wave?
___occur commonly in mitral stenosis, rheumatic heart disease and infarction of the atrial myocardium
atrial fibrillation
____is an immediatly life-threatening condition in which the lack of ventricular pumping stop the flow of blood
ventricular fibrillation
___application of an electric shock to force cardiac muscle fiber to contract in rhythm? (treatment of fibrillation)
____detect a person's heart rhythm using small electrode pads placed in the torso?
Automatic external defibrillator (AEDs)
____is the inability of the heart to pump enough blood to sustain life
heart failure
_____ or disease of the myocardial tissue may reduce pumping effectiveness?
myocardial infarction result in myocardial damage may lead to__?
heart failure
dysrhythmias such as complete heart block or ventricular fibrillation can impair the ___?
pumping effectiveness and heart failure
right side heart failure caused by lung disorder the obstruct normal pulmonary blood flow and overload the right side of the heart, condition called__?
cor pumonale
the inability of the left ventricle to pump blood effectively?
congestive heart failure (CHF) or left sided heart failure
____decrease pumping pressure in the systemic circulation, causing body to retain fluids?
congestive heart failure
left-sided heart failure cause congestion of blood in the pulmonary circulation, called?
pulmonary edema
the right atrium and ventricle performing____ from the left atrium and ventricle?
different function
___the volume of blood ejected from one ventricle with each beat?
stroke volume
___amount of blood that one ventricle can pump each minute, average is about 5 L/min at rest?
cardiac output
SA (sinoatrial) node, the pacemaker located?
in the wall of right atrium in superior vena cava