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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
social cognition
use of cognitive processes such as perception, memory, and thoughts in order to make sense of others' behaviors and actions
social schema
coherent set of beliefs and expectations that can influence perception of persons, objects, and situations
prototype
we store abstract representations of typical features of a group
exemplar
individual memories that serve as basis for comparisons
self-fulfilling prophecy
expectations that casue a person to behave int he expected manner
who did experiments on the concept of self-fulfilling properties? Describe the experiment.
Mark Snyder--had people rate phone call friendliness after seeing picture of caller
Greenwald and Banaji (1995)
exp. with subliminal stereotypes of blacks on screen
attribution
process of making interferences about causes of behavior
What is the trend and types of attribution?
For others, we tend to attribute behaviors to internal properties--fundamental attribution error.
four ourselves, there ist he self-serving bias, including the actor-observer effect where the errors are due to external factors
Jones Harris (1967)
exp. with essays about Fidel. Told one group readers were forced. The group still believe the essays refelect the writers' true opinions.
covariation model
look for factors that covaries with the behavior change; should look for consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus
How is having an attitude helpful?
helps our actions remain consistent; defensive function (protects beliefs); helps us use knowledge about situations
three parts of attitude
cognitive-knowledge
affective-emotions
behavioral-predispostion, not necessarily the action
attitudes formed
experience and mere exposure
Who conducted the experiment concerning the mere exposure effect?
Robert Zajonc (1968); pack of repeated pics, asked people which they preferred
illusory
truth effect; believe something after hearing it repeatedly
attitudes changed by...
elaboration liklihood model
central route of the elaboration liklihood model
high elaboration; careful processeing; change depends on quality of arguments
peripheral route
low elaboration; not careful processing; attitude change depends on presence of cues--source characteristics (eg., celebrity commercials)
Festinger, Schachter, and Back (1956)
Doomsday cult study; more devotion even though prophecy fails; we want attitude and behavior to be consistent, when conflicting there is inner turmoil; subjects didn't want to be stupid
Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)
male subjects asked to play with spools (dull); asked to tell others it was fun and itneresting; paid 0,1,and $20 to lie; then asked in reality how enjoyable was the study; $1 group said it was enjoyable; evidence for cognitive dissonance
cognitive dissonance
motivated to make cognitions and beliefs consistent with behavior
self perception
developed by Daryl Ben; attitude follows behavior; Freedmand and Fraser conducted exp--foot-in-the-door technique (w/ petitions); also lowball technique (start w/ low price, but not really)
type of social influence when others increase performance, decrease performance, causes less effort
social facilitation; social interference; social loafing
Zajonc (1965)
relates task difficulty and social influence by appealing to arousal
The Kitty Genovese case illustrates what?
bystander effect--more people, less willingness to act individually
diffusion of responsibility--someone else will do it
What experiments illustrate diffusion of responsibility?
theology students--10% "Good Samaritan" speakers stopped to help someone on way to lecture
anotehr exp--seisures over intercome; if alone in room, more likely to take action
What experiment exhibits conformity?
Solomon Asch: out of 3 lines which match up to example; 37% will give wrong answer if confederates give wrong answer; more the case if the pressure comes from an in-group
Why do we conform?
normative social influence-we want approval
informational social influence-majority opinion is a source of info
What is relationship bewtween pressure and size of group?
Pressure increases as size increases, but curve levels off and even decreases a bit.
group polarization
group opinion becomes polarized; think politics
groupthink
compulsion by decision makes to mainain each other's approval at the cost of critical thinking
What is the significance of Janis's findings?
found groupthink happening in the government
Give example of a cultural difference of how we perceive ourselves.
US-independent; Japan-interdependent
What factors go into liking and loving?
familiarity; proximity; similarity; reciprocity
Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love
intimacy; passion; commitment
What factors characterize abnormality?
statistical deviance; cultural deviance; emotional distress; dysfunction
insanity
legally, it is the inability to understand right/wrong during time of the crime; used less than 1% and rarely successful
psychopathology
illness based on disruption or disease in bilogical machinery
Diagnostic labeling effects
label for psychological problem can lend itself to self fulfilling prophecy
Rosenhan Study (1970s)
told admissions they were hearing voices; admitten then acted normal; doctors releaseed them with "schizo in remission"; illustrates diag labeling effects
DSM-IV
Axis1-clinical syndromes
Axis2-personality disorders
Axis3-general medical disorders
Axis4-severity of stressors
Axis5-overall assessment
Anxiety Disorders
genralized AD; panic D; OCD; extreme phobias
somatoform disorders
expression of underlying psych problems through physical symptoms; hypochodriasis, somatization disorder, and conversion disorder
dissociative disorders
separation of one part of a person's id from another either by dissociative amnesia or dissociative id disorder; dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative id disorder;l evidence for, diff visual acuities
mood disorders
major depression; biopolar disorder (manic depressive)
dysthymic disorder
midler form of depression but chronic; along with depression is double depression
schizophrenic disorders
disturbances in though processes and emotions and a distortion of reality; disorganized, paranoid, catatonic, undifferentiated
What is positive/negative symptoms?
+ emans present halluciations/ delusions
- means lack of normal emotions-a flat affect
personality disorders
maladaptive and inflexibly; paranoid, antisocial, borderline (instability and lack of control), dependnet
biomedical therapies
drug, ECT, and psychosurgery
drug therapies
Deniker and Delay-chloromazine to treat schizo;
antipsychotic drugs-antagonists--blocks dopamine (but tardive dyskinesia side effect)
antidepressants-increases serotonin; trisyclics affect norepipherine
antianxiety-works on GABA-tranquilizers
ECT
for depression; restart nerual firings; but memory could be lost; 50-70% success
psychosurgery
developed by Egaas Moniz-remove part of prefrontal lobe
cingulotomy-destroy small limbic tissues
insight therapies
Freud-psychoanalysis therapy designed to bring unconcious conflicts into awareness; done with free association and dream analysis
resistance/transference
resistance-shows therapy is working; discomfort so mind gets defensive
transference-pts start showing liking towards psychologist
cognitive therapies
Albert Ellis's rational emotive therapy-cross-examiner
Beck's cognitive therapy-co-investigator-client identifies with maladaptive thoughts
humanistic therapies
client-centered therapy (genuiness, unconditional regard, and empathy)
believes there is incongruency--discrepency between self-concept and reality
What are other humanistic therapies?
Perls-Gestalt therapy-not as gentle; "empty chair"-get feelings out and open up
existential therapies-problems come from choices
Other therapies?
group therapy-cost effective, lets you know you aren't alone; family therapy
behavioral therapies
Mary Cover Jones-eliminate phobias
Conditioning and Consequences
systemic desensitization
Joseph Wolpe-counter conditioning-anxiety hierarchy, techniques for relaxation, and combing the previous 2
aversion therapy
associate unpleasant feeling with bad habit
token economies
give token which could be exhanged for goods when there is good behavior; take away tokens when there is bad behavior
punishments should be limited why?
damage relationship between pts and therapists; only teaches what not to do; raises ethical questions
Philadephia (Sloane) experiment testing clinical therapies
1group-psychodynamic
2group-behavioral
3group-control-"waiting list"
results-1and2 showed faster improvement but afterawhile 1=2=3
meta-analysis
many diff studies are compared statistically on some common evaluation measure; common standard, or effect size, is the standardized measure of diff between treatment and control conditions
Smith's overall meta-analysis
large treatment advantage; few diff between treatments
spontaneous remission
get better on own, but it takes longer