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25 Cards in this Set

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Burned Over District
(Place) Page 327
-The region of towns around the Erie Canal in Upstate New York.
-Experiencing economic trasformation
- a result of the building of the Erie Canal.
- men and women disorientated by social change
-religious revival common because of te 2nd Great Awakening
-roughly the area where Joseph Smith first organized the Mormon Church
Temperance (event) page 327
-sometimes known as the crusade against drunkenness
-women highly active in movement because their husbands spent all of thier money and abused the wives when they returned from the pub or tavern
-supply of alcohol grew as more people began making private distilleries
-1826 American Society for the Promotion of Temperance
-1851 Maine passed law that made sale and consumption of alcohol illegal
Horace Mann's Reforms
(Event/Person) Page 330
-Horace Mann=Secretay of Massachusetts Board of Education (est. 1837)
-Mann lengthened academic year
-Mann doubled teacher's salaries
-didn't eliminate disparities between male and female salaries
-enriched curriculum
-new methods of professional training for teachers
-reformed to help protect democracy
-established first American state-supported teachers' college (1839)
-First professional association of teachers (1845)
Literacy Rates
(Event) Page 331
-By the beginning of the Civil war, U.S. had one of the highest literacy rates in the world
-Literacy Rates= 94% northern population & 58% of total southern population (83% of whites in the south)
-10% of slave population achieved literacy
-many teachers were barely literate
Prison Reform (event)
-began with the creation of asylums: place to rehabilitate prisoners and care for the mentally ill
-new forms of ridgid discipline to rid any "laxness"
-creation of solitary confinement in 1820's
-institutions were created to help women and children stay away from the area of crime so they will have less of a chance to become criminals later
Contagion (pg 330)
-Medical developments hard to prove and be accepted by society
-1843, Boston essayist, poet and physicia Oliver Wendell Holmes concluded the concept of contagion.
-Stated that disease could be transmitted from one person to another.
-Saw criticism at first but was proven through the clinical success if Ignaz Semmelweis.
-students were then required to wash hands and and disinfect instruments.
Mormons (people/concept) p.327
Mormonism is the product of the efforts of Joesph Smith. Mormons have a belief in human perfectibility. In other words,they believe that a human can become godlike. Mormons do not embrace individual liberty as demonstrated by their highly organized social structure. Mormons reflcted the sentiment people felt that material growth and social progress was displacing them in society as people came to the highly structured organization of mormonism to find security and order in a rapidly changing
Phrenology (concept) p.329
Phrenology is a now defunct belief scientists heldin the1830s that argued that an individual's skull was an indicator of character and intelligence. This purely based on pstualtion, however, and had little evidence, if any, backing up their theory. It demonstrates the abysmal state of medicine in the antebellum period and how people placed too much faith in superstitions that often did more harm than good
American Antislavery society (people) p335,338
The American Antislavery Society (AAS) was created by Garrison. It become popular, gathering over 250k members and 1350 chapters, among the members including the illstious Frederick Douglas. The society helped to develop antislavery sentiment to becomestronger and more assertive. However, by 1840, a formal division came within the society as Garrison made radical and controversial claims, such as admitting women with full equality and attacking the government.
shakers (people)
a society created by "mother" Ann Lee in the 1770s. During the antebellum period the shakers had 20+ communities due to the increase in followers. the shaker community was completely celibate so in order for the institution to remain people had to choose to convert since it was not possible for anyone to be born into it. the society had more women that men and saw god as neither male of female. they endoursed social equality. the shakers wanted to create a community that cut off interactions from the chaos and dissorder of typical american society
Romanticism (idea)
This idea developed in Europe and came to America during the Antebellum Era. This idea emphasized finding truth through nature, the significance of the individual and the liberation of the human spirit. Some Americans who expressed this idea were the Hudson River School painters, and writers such as James Fenimore Cooper, Herman Melville and Walt Whitman, through their works The Last of the Mohicans, Moby Dick and Leaves of Grass, respectively.
Transcendentalism (idea)
This idea was an aspect of Romanticism, during the Antebellum Era, which was largely influenced by European philosophers, such as Kant and Hegel, but which was uniquely American. This idea was based on the emphasis and difference between Reason and Understanding. Reason was defined as the individual's innate capacity to grasp beauty and truth through giving full expression to the instincts and emotions. While understanding was defined as the use of intellect in the narrow, artificial ways imposed by society. This idea, especially, emphasized a connection with nature, as members of the movement considered nature to be the ultimate, and only real source of truth. Thus, they saw America as the ideal place to live in accordance with this idea, as America had vast amounts of uncorrupted wilderness. Some members of the movement were Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. The idea would eventually give rise to an environmentalist movement.
Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass was born a slave in Talbot County, Maryland. However on September 3rd of 1838, he succesfully escaped slavery by boarding a train to Harve de Grace, Maryland. From there he dressed up as a sailor and used identification papers to identify himself as a free black. He became a leader of antislavery and spent two years teaching in England and returned to the United States in 1847. Douglass soon purchased his freedom and wrote his own autobiography, "Narrative of the Life if Frederick Douglass". He demanded not only freedom, but full social and economical equality for African-Americans. His leadership and orating tenacity allowed abolitionism to become a more influential force.
Hudson River School (people)
This group of people established themselves during the earlier nineteenth century, in New York. They formed an organization, or school, of significant American painters. These painters were part of the Romantic Movement, and, as such, sought to capture the beauty and truth of the American wilderness. They considered nature, rather than civilization, as the best source of wisdom and spiritual fulfillment. Frederic Church, Thomas Cole, Thomas Doughty, Asher Durand, and others formed this organization.

Anti-Abolitionism
While abolitionism was a strong force, it inlfuenced and opposing majority, the Anti-Abolitionists. Almost all white southerners, and even some northerners, were part of the Anti-Abolitionists. They saw the abolition movement with fear and danger. They feared that the freeing of blacks would lead to a war or a great increase in free blacks throughout the North. They brought and used violence directed at abolitionists to try and stop or slow down this movement.
Moderate and Extremist Abolitionist
By the mid-1830's, a division amongst the abolitionists began to occur. Part was due to the violence of the anti-abolitinist, causing some to choose a more moderate approach to Abolitionism. Also, the growing radicalism of William Lloyd Garrison shifted the minds of some abolitionists toward a more moderate ideality. Moderates wanted a long, patient, peaceful struggle for abolition. Extremist sought out for immediate abolition for all slaves.
Prigg vs Pennsylvania 1842
With former president John Q. Adams support, the Supreme Court ruled that the states need not aid in the enforcement of the 1793 law, which required that fugitive slaves be returned to their owners. Abolitionists secured the passage of "personal liberty laws" in several northern states. These laws forbade state officials to help in the capture and return of runaway slaves. This caused the south to feel further isolated from the rest of the country.
Walt Whitman
Walt Whitman, a poet of American democracy, wrote poems with themes of unrestrained celebration of democracy, of the liberation of the individual, and the pleasures of the flesh as well as the spirit. Whitman's works, including Leaves of Grass, influenced verse to stray for traditional and restrictive conditions and also, helped express the spirit of individualism and transcendentalism. (321)
Herman Melville
Author Herman Melville's novel, Moby Dick, portayed the human spirt as a troubled, often self-destructive force, most likely influenced by individualist ideals. (321)
Seneca Falls
In 1848, Mott Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and other organized a convention in Seneca Falls, New York to discuss the question of women's rights. Their most prominant demand was for the right to vote, thus launching a movement for women's suffrage that would continue until 1920. But the document was in many ways more important for its rejection of the whole notion.
Edgar Allen Poe
Edgar Allen Poe, author of primarily sad and macabre poems such as The Raven, explored the deeper world of spirits and emotions through his examination of individual spirt. Poe often portrayed the world as a pained and horrid place. His works were like influenced by individualist and trascendentalist ideal that were popular during his era. (321)
Shakers
The Shakers were a more extreme form of utopian community than the Oneidas. The Shakers were founded by Mother Ann Lee in 1770, and all Shakers were celibate--they did not have sex. Most Shakers were women, and these women exercised more authority than the Shaker men. They did not assign God a gender; they believed God could be male or female. Shakerism survived into the nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first centuries, though its peak was in the antebellum period.
Oneida community
The Oneida Community was a utopian community founded in 1846 by John Noyes. The Onedia village rejected traditional family and marriage ideas, and instead thought that all villagers were 'married' to each other. Children were raised by the whole community , and as a result kids did not get to see their parents very often. Sexual relationships were closely monitored by the whole community.
New Harmony
The New Harmony community was founded in 1825 by Robert Owen. In the New Harmony community, each resident worked and lived in total equality--there were equal opportunities for women and men. This "village of Cooperation" ended up becoming a total economic failure, but this first utopian community inspired other "Owenite" utopian communities to grow.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Tom's Cabin was published in 1852 and written Harriet Beecher Stowe. Within a year of publication, it had sold over 300,000 copies, becoming one of the best selling books in American History. The novel was a sentimental novel, written by and for women. Uncle Tom's Cabin is significant for its anti-slavery message, being a powerful abolitionist document, delivering the abolitionist message to a new audience, and re-igniting heated tensions between North and South.