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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
genome
all of cell's DNA (genetic info)
chromosome
individual DNA molecule
chromatin
chromosomal DNA and its protein scaffold
sister chromotids
2 indentical copies of a duplicated chromosome
centromere
point of attachment for sister chromotids
somatic cell
(most cells) cells that have two copies of each chromosome (diploid)
gametes
reproductive cells (sperm and egg)- haploid cells that have 1 copy of each chromosome
cell cycle
process of cell division (M, G1, S, G2 phases)
mitosis
M phase- nuclear division
interphase
main part of cell cycle (G1, S, G2)
G1 phase
cell prepares for DNA synthesis; usually grows in size
S phase
DNA is duplicated
G2 phase
cell checks fidelity of DNA replication; prepares for nuclear division
mitosis subphases
prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase/cytokinesis
prophase
1st usbphase of mitosis where chromatin is condensing and the mitotic spindle begins to form but the nucleus and nucleolus are still in tact
prometaphase
2nd subphase of mitosis where discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear, the nuclear envelope fragments and the spindle microtubles attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes
metaphase
the 3rdsubphase of mitosis in which the spindle is completed and the chromosomes attacheded to the microtubles at their kinetochores are all aligned at the metaphase plate
anaphase
4th subphase of mitosis where the chromatids of ech chromosomes have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell along the microtubles
telophase
the 5th and final subphase of mitosis where daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis have typically begun
cytokinesis
division of cytoplasm to form 2 separate daughter cells immediately after miosis