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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Difference between France/England and Germany?
France/England had strong central governments, Germany didn't because of conflicts between the pope and German nobles.
Accomplishments of Henry I, the son for William the Conqueror
Henry I set up the Exchequer, the dept of royal finances. Also set up royal courts.
Accomplishments of King Louis IX, Philip's grandson
Made royal courts dominant over feudal courts. ONly king could mint coins. Ban of private warfare and weapon use
Accomplishments of William the Conqueror
Set up a Great Council of royal officials (called Parliament), bishops and nobles to give advice. Used local officials called sheriffs to collect taxes. Conducted first census since Rome's fall. Written in Domesday book.
Small resolve of Emperor vs. Pope conflict
The Concordat of Worms, a compromise at the German city of Worms. Allowed emperor to name bishops and grant them land. Allowed pope to reject unworthy candidates.
William, the Duke of Normandy, also known as William the Conqueror. One of the new rulers of England
He was cousin of late English king, and vassal of king of France. He invaded England, defeated Harold Godwinson (a rival for the throne) and earned title of William the Conqueror.
Philip IV, Louis IX's grandson, also called Philip the Fair because he was hot
Increase land by winning wars. To pay for wars, raised taxes and taxed more people, like clergy. Wanted to raise taxes on a national level, not just local, but didn't work. French kings still had power on government affairs.
What is common law?
English law based on tradition and court decisions, not specific laws
The Magna Carta (Great Charter)
Henry's sons, Richard I and John, sucked. John lost English land to France, and ppl didn't like his tax increase and punishing people w/o trial. A group of nobles met, and forced John to sign the Magna Carta- limits on royal power.
Downfall of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms
Alfred the Great ruled. Interested in reviving learning, like Charlemagne. Founded schools and hired scholars to translate Latin to Anglo-Saxon. Wrote Anglo-Saxon chronicle, a history of England. Kings after Alfred sucked. Last king, Edward the Confressor died, and throne was lost.
Problems of Holy Roman Empire (Germany)
Otto and his successors calimed right choose popes, etc. Popes claimed right to choose kings, etc. Powerful lords also prevented Holy Roman emperors in unifying the state.
England was invaded by 3 groups of Germanic people. Who?
Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. Took Britain from native Celts. King Alfred of Wessex aka Alfred the Great, united the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms defeated Viking attacks. Now called Angleland = England.
Development of the middle class
During rule of Henry III, John's son, increase in population = growth in towns. Middle class developed. Weren't nobles, clergy or peasants. Income from business and trade.
Accomplishments of Henry II, son of Henry I
He added to the court system. Instead of old feudal rules (differed from lord to lord), he established a common law. Judges began to meet with a grand jury. Created petit jury.
Accomplishments of Louis VI, a later king of France. POWER TO PEOPLE!
He gave townspeople and clergy positions on his court of advisers, and granted self-govt in towns - no more obligations to feudal lords.
What is a grand jury?
A group of men who submitted the names of people suspected of crimes
What happened in France after Charlemagne's death?
Frankish lands separated into territories governmed by independent feudal lords.
What is a petit jury?
A jury serving a trial to establish the guilt/innocence of those accused
Edward I, Henry III's son
Made the Model Parliament: representatives from the clergy, nobility, and burgesses. English govt turned more representative. Parliament gave Edward advice.
Henry III's contribution
Added knights and burgesses (important townspeople) to the Great Council (Parliament).
Who was Thomas à Becket?
The Archbishop of Canterbury. Good friends with Henry II, but didn't like Henry's reforms. Knights overhead Henry wanted him dead, and killed Becket in his cathedral during Christmas season. He was honored like a saint. Miracles at his tomb.
What two houses did Parliament divide into?
House of Lords (nobles and clergy) and House of Commons (knights and burgesses)
Henry IV vs. Pope Gregory VII
Pope comdemned lay investiture. Henry wanted to continue it. Pope rid Henry of position, replaced him. Henry begged for mercy. Gregory pardoned Henry. Conflict continued for many years.
Who was the the "Emperor of the Romans"?
German king, King Otto I, or Otto the Great. Pope crowned Otto the Emperor of the Romans because he helped the pope against Roman nobles.
Philip II, or Philip Augustus, later King of France
Doubled size of land (through marraige and war). Appointed local officials loyal to the king, and formed semipermanent royal army. Weakened feudal lord power even more.
Who was Hugh Capet? CAPETIAN DYNASTY.
A noble that toook the French throne from weak Carolingian king. Controled strip of land and Paris. Capetian dynasty 300+ yrs. Created idea of eldest son inheriting throne. Strengthened power of monarchy and controlled feudal lords.