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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Church Rankings
Church heirarchy remained the same during Middle Ages. Most people had contact with the church through parish priests (conducted services and looked over community).
Pope Gregory I liked Benedictine Rule so much that he used it to spread Christianity. Converted Anglo-Saxons in England to Catholicism. England to Germany for Christianity. Ireland to Europe. Now, mostly Catholics.
What is excommunication?
Heretics (those who challenged the Church teachings)did not convert. Threatened with excommunication - expulsion from the Church. They were not allowed to participate in sacraments, outlawed from contact w/ Christians.
Understanding what was being preached
Masses said in Latin- few people understood. Many priests were poorly educated. Few worshipers could read or write. Learned most info from statues, paintings, and stained glass windows.
Influence of Monastics
Regular clergy preserved ancient relgious works and classical writings. SCribes coped books by hand. Monasteries/convents provided schools, hospitals, food for the needy, and guest houses. Taught peasants. Made improvements in agriculture. Some were missionaries.
What is an abbot/abbess?
An abbot is a monastery head. Directed monks. An abbess directs nuns (female).
The Albigensians of France
A group of heretics that believed the material world was evil, and rejected church sacraments. Pope Innocent III sent French knights and stopped them.
What is eucharist?
An important sacrament. It is the holy communion, which honors the memory of Christ's death.
Who were friars?
Wandering preachers. Lived simply, owned nothing, and depended on gifts of food/shelter to live. Wanted reform. Lived in towns and preached to the people.
Innocent III's influence on Church reform.
He condemned drunkeness, feasting, and dancing among clergy. Laid rules for stopping spread of heresy.
Benedict's Rule
A Roman official, Benedict, founded a monastery at Monte Cassino in Italy. He made a list of rules for manual work, meditation and prayer. Restrictions for monks.
Power of the Church: role in feudalism
Recieved land from kings for military service b/c they were also nobles. Could not fight b/c religious. Gave some land to knights who would fight for them. Church got donations of land and $. Appointed relatives as bishops/abbots. Church officials didn't care about religious duties now.
What are sacraments?
Church rituals like baptism, penance, eucharist, confirmation, matrimony, etc. Catholic Church said all people were sinners, and will be saved by God's grace (and participate in sacraments)
Church reform
Reform movement began in monasteries. Cluny in France. Wanted the Church, not state, to be final authority. Political leaders could no longer choose the pope- cardinals did. The pope, not lords/kings, chose bishops and church officials.
Secular and regular clergy
Pope, bishops, and priests formed secular clergy because they lived "in the world". Other clergy lived in regular clergy because they lived by a rule. This includes monks and nuns.
Monks and nuns
Monks and nuns wore simple clothing (wimples for nuns). Silence. Women- spun, weave, embroider tapestries/banners. Taught needlework and medicine (herbs) to nobles.
What are cardinals?
High church officials in Rome, ranked right below the pope, that would elect the pope.
What is lay investiture? Who was Pope Gregory VII?
Lay investiture is when political rulers gave symbols of office (ring/staff) to chosen bishops. Pope Gregory VII didn't like this. Believed pope should chose.
Creation of a court called The Inquisition
Made to seek and punish people suspected of heresy. Usually unfair to accused. Punishment to save the souls of heretics.
What is heresy?
The denial of basic church teachings. Regarded as a crime of treason, like today.
Francis of Assisi (Italian) and Dominic (Spanish)
Franciscans and Dominicans are well known friars. Good preachers - smart.
Power of the Catholic Church (Medieval Church)
Catholic CHurch was dominant spiritual influence. Because of Rome's fall, Church had political and social tasks too. The bishop of Rome (aka the pope) became strongest political leader. Had spiritual power because Peter the Apostle (Rome's first bishop) had been chose by Jesus.