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19 Cards in this Set

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Viking Culture
Worshiped many deities. Written peoms called Eddas. Made up sagas (long tales). Converted to Christianity. Wrote in Roman letters.
Middle Ages/Dark Ages combined what cultures/beliefs?
Combined classical and Germanic cultures with Christian beliefs
Result of Viking attacks on Western Europe?
Isolated communites, weakened authority of monarchs. Trade declined, almost economic collapse. Nobles and local official took over local defense. Feudalism begins.
Pepin the Short, son of Charles Martel
Made King of Franks - pope anointed him - divinely chosen ruler. Pepin defeated Lombards, and gave Lombard land to Pope. Pope let go of Byzantine Empire, and relied on Franks.
Charles Martel aka "Charles the Hammer"
One of the mayors of the palace. Muslims attacked Europe, but he defended Tours, France well. This ensured that Christianity would be the major religion of Europe.
Accomplishments of Charlemagne?
Doubled kingdom land - called Frankish Empire. For the first time since fall of Rome, most western Europeans under one government. Formed schools in chruches and monasteries. Scholars preserved classical learning. Common ideas for western Europe.
Viking settlements
Norwegians (Greenland and Iceland, and USA). Danes (England, made Viking state of Normandyin France). Swedes (Ukraine and Russia)
Clovis
Clovis was a king of the Franks. He was the first Germanic ruler to accept Catholicism. Balance of church and military = good!
Charlemagne aka Charles the Great, son of Pepin the Short
Name is Carolus Magnus in Latin, so called Carolingian dynasty.
Treaty of Verdun
Divide the Carolingian lands. Charles the Bald had west (France). Louis the German had east (Germany). Lothair, the Holy Roman emperor, had middle.
What led to the decline of the Frankish kingdom?
Frankish kings usually divided kingdom among their heirs. They became rivals and fought for land.
What are some characteristics of the Dark Ages?
Germanic invasions destroyed most of Roman Empire. Trade declined. Cities, bridges, and roads fell apart. No law and order, or education No money usage.
Rulers of Franks known as _____?
Merovingian kings, for the ruler Merowig
During Charlemagne's rule, believed could make a Christian Roman Empire
Charlemagne defended Pope Leo III against Roman nobles. Leo crowned Charlemagne the new Roman emperor. Charlemagne - church officials more superior to rulers?! Charlemagne is protector of Church and ruler of most of Europe.
Efficiency of Viking Ships
Because of this, they were powerful. Could cross the Atlentic Ocean, navigate through rivers, and light so could carry. Left homeland of Scandinavia because of overpopulation
Mayors of the Palace
Policial power from Frankish kings were passed to these government officials
What led to the collapse of the Frankish Empire?
Charlemagne's death. His son, Louis the Pious, could not live up to his rule. Louis's sons (Charlemagne's grandsons) split up the empire in the Treaty of Verdun. Outside invasions of VIKINGS, Muslims, Slavs, and Magyars.
Counts & royal messengers
Central bureaucracy was small, so had counts assist Charlemagne. Each count solcved local problems, stopped feuds, protected the weak, raised armies for the emperor. Royal messenger (missi dominici) would inspect counts and report to Charlemagne. He also observed personally.
Who was the strongest Germanic group (people who had destroyed Roman Empire), and where did they settle?
The Franks, who settled in France and western Germany