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80 Cards in this Set

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Where was the temporary home of Congress in 1789 when Washington took office?
NYC
How did the Congress decide to address the US President? Why?
Mr. President. More democratic than Your Highness.
Who was the first Vice President and how was he elected?
John Adams - he was the runner up to Washington.
What was the 1789 Federal Judiciary Act?
It set up the Court System (the Constitution didn't do that).
How did the Judiciary Act manage to pass the anti-Federalists in Congress?
Federal courts: Constitutional matters only. No interfering with States' laws.
Name the three types of federal courts.
District
Circuit
Supreme
Who was the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court?
John Jay (negotiated the Treaty of Paris and Jay's Treaty)
Who were the members of Washington's Cabinet?
Department of State - Jefferson
Secretary of War - Knox
Secretary of Treasury - Alexander Hamilton (today?)
Attorney General - Edmund Randolph
How many cabinet positions are there today?
13, including Homeland Security, the newest.
What was the new government's biggest problem?
They were broke from the Revolutionary War.
How did Alexander Hamilton believe the US would become wealthy?
CAPITALISM - a powerful class of business people.
What Capitalist principles did the book THE WEALTH OF NATIONS explain?
Government should place AS FEW LIMITS AS POSSIBLE ON TRADE & MANUFACTURING.
What are the two main features of Capitalism?
1. PRIVATE BUSINESS;
2. COMPETITION and FREE MARKET (businesses compete for customers by making the best goods for the least price).
Why was New England in favor of a STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT?
1. They were the WEALTHIEST region of the country and
2. they believed in LIMITING INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM for the sake of the larger community.
How did most other states feel about the strong central government (at first, it was called Republicanism; later Federalism)?
SUSPICIOUS. They believed in INDIVIDUALISM without government interference.
Name the four points of Hamilton's FINANCIAL PLAN.
1. PAY DEBTS;
2. GOVERNMENT REVENUES (taxes);
3. PROMOTION of AMERICAN INDUSTRIES (tariffs);
4. NATIONAL BANK.
Why did Hamilton need Jefferson's support to pay-off the war debts?
The South had already paid a lot of their debts and didn't want to help pay other states' debts.
What got Jefferson to agree to get Southern states' support for paying the North's debts?
Move capital to DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
How would the new government raise money (revenue)?
Through tariffs on imported and exported goods.
How could tariffs be made to help American businesses and disadvantage foreign businesses?
Made FOREIGN goods more EXPENSIVE, AMERICAN goods CHEAPTER.
Why were the states against the higher tariffs on foreign goods?
North - traded with England.
South - afraid North would have a monopoly on shipping.
What was the Tonnage Act?
Required that all foreign ships be treated equally (be charged the same amount per ton of cargo).
What other source of revenue did Hamilton want?
A tax on US - made WHISKEY.
What were some of Jefferson's and Madison's criticisms of the National Bank? (both men were Virginians)
1. They thought LAND = WEALTH (not paper money);
2. Bank part of Hamilton's system of ECONOMIC INEQUALITY (favored wealthy businessmen over farmers).
What do STRICT and LOOSE CONSTRUCTIONISM of the Constitution mean?
STRICT: You can only EXACTLY what the CONSTITUTION SAYS you can (Madison & Jefferson: NO BANKS in Constitution).
LOOSE: do ANYTHING UNLESS the Constitution says you CANNOT. (Hamilton: doesn't say no banks.
Who won the argument about the bank?
Hamilton, by getting George Washington on his side.
How did Madison manage to make the federal government more appealing to those who feared it?
By adding the BILL OF RIGHTS to the Constitution, which PROTECTED PERSONAL LIBERTIES.
America was threatened by several forces in the 1780's. How did Spain threaten them?
BLOCKING them from using the MISSISSIPPI RIVER and port of NEW ORLEANS for shipping.
What was the British threat to the new US?
PROTECTING LOYALISTS;
ARMING INDIANS.
How did the British Parliament protect the Loyalists who had fled after the war?
Created "Upper Canada" (now Ontario) for them.
What kind of threat were the Indians?
Indians DEFENDING THEIR LAND at the frontier (CHIEF LITTLE TURTLE wiped out 800 US soldiers).
What was the Battle of Fallen Timbers?
Government sent General Anthony Wayne ("Mad Anthony") and troops to fight Indians on the frontier. The US defeated the Indians.
What was the TREATY OF GRANVILLE?
Indians GAVE UP MOST OF OHIO to American settlers.
What was the Indian Intercourse Act?
PROTECT INDIANS from DISHONEST US TRADERS.
What were Democratic Republican organizations?
ANTI-FEDERAL groups. Suspicious of STRONG LEADERS and AGAINST TAXES (Whiskey Tax). Felt Federal GOVERNMENT FAVORED THE RICH.
What was the Whiskey Rebellion?
A rebellion against the Whiskey tax. Washington PUT IT DOWN showing his DETERMINATION TO PROTECT THE UNION (over local communities).
How were the British hurting the Americans' trade at that time?
They seized 250 American ships because they were trading with the French West Indies (England at war with France).
What did England agree to in Jay's Treaty?
WITHDRAW from AMERICAN SOIL 1796.
What did US agree to in Jay's treaty?
TRADE with BRITISH (not just French) East and West Indies.
What did both the US and Brits agree to in Jay's Treaty?
To give each other "most favored nation" status in trade. Means they will give the same benefits to each other that they give to other countries.
Why did France start losing American support during the French Revolution.
The French went too far in its brutality, killing the King and Queen and tons of people. "Reign of Terror"
Why was Jefferson so pissed off about Jay's Treaty?
Because basically Americans were sympathetic to the French Revolution and he felt Jay's Treaty freed up the Brits to wage full force war on the French.
What was Pinckney's Treaty (the Treaty of San Lorenzo)?
Agreement with Spain:
Spain agreed to give US shipping rights to the Missippi and New Orleans, and it set a boundary between US and Spanish lands.
How did Hamilton finally get Congress to pass Jay's Treaty even though there were tons of protests going on by Jefferson's people and the Republican Democratic Societies?
Hamilton agreed to help Jefferson get the Pinckney Treaty passed in exchange for Jefferson agreeing to the Jay Treaty.
What was the argument about NEUTRALITY about?
US signed the Franco/American treaty after our revolution. Should Americans support the French in their revolution even though the French were slaughtering people, and even though it might ruin their trade with England?
Who was "Citizen Genet"?
A French member of the ruling party there who came to the US to push Congress to support the French. He was really hot-headed and embarrassed Jefferson who had supported him.
Name the first ship in the American Navy.
The USS Constitution (you've been on it!)
Name the two political parties that emerged after Jay's Treaty was signed in 1795.
Republicans and Federalists
Who were the first leaders of the Federalists?
Alexander Hamilton and John Adams.
Who were the first leaders of the Republicans?
James Madison and Thomas Jefferson
What part of the country did most Federalists come from?
New England
What part of the country did most Republicans come from?
The South and West
What 4 things did the Republicans believe in?
Power in the hands of farmers and planters (AGRARIAN economy);
Limited national government and States' rights;
Strict construction of the Consitution;
Sympathized with France.
What did the Federalists believe in?
Strong Federal government;
Power in the hands of those in the COMMERICIAL (business) economy (property owners, merchants, etc - people with money);
Did not support French, wanted close ties with England;
large army.
Who ran for President when Washington retired in 1786?
Federalists - John Adams
Republicans - Thomas Jefferson
Who was Thomas Pinckney?
He ran for President alongside John Adams.
Why did Pinckney kill Hamilton?
Hamilton tried to get people to vote for Pinckney over Adams. New Englanders were mad and all voted for Adams. Pinckney never forgave Hamilton for ruining his political career and betraying him.
Who were the second President and Vice President of the US?
President - John Adams (Federalist)
Vice President - Thomas Jefferson (Republican)
How did the US almost get into war with the French?
Jay's Treaty made France furious - it annulled its treaties with the US and seized US ships worth $20 million and executed American sailors.
What was the XYZ AFFAIR?
It was a secret French offer for peace with the US (no names used, just called negotiators X, Y, and Z):
Pay France a huge amount of money just to begin peace talks and then a loan of $12 to stop seizing American ships.
What was the Direct Tax of 1798 for?
Federalists pushed it through to pay for a hugely expanded military to defend the US against France if it came to war.
What four laws did the Federalists pass to attack freedome of speech and Freedom of the Press?
Sedition Act
Naturalization Act
Alien Act and
Alien Enemies Act
What was the Sedition Act?
Made it a crime to speak out against the government or plan any action against it.
What was the Naturalization Act?
Immigrants had to wait 14 years instead of 5 to become citizens (to limit an influx of "dangerous" foreign ideas.
What were the Alien and Alien Enemies Acts?
Allowed the president to imprison or deport any suspicious alien during wartime (sort of like our Patriot Act).
What were the Virgina and Kentucky Resolves written by Republicans to oppose these four acts?
Madison and Jefferson wrote a resolution of "States' Rights" - the Constitution was a compact between SOVEREIGN STATES. States had the right to NULLIFY FEDERAL LAWS if they felt they were unconstitutional.
What was the Franco-American Accord?
Napolean came to power in France and wanted peace with the US. The US agreed to forget about all French debts in return for France stopping attacks on US ships.
What aroused such rage among people that they voted John Adams out of office in the election of 1800?
The Direct Tax.
What was the Fries Rebellion?
A Pennsylvanian named Fries forced the government to release people who had been imprisoned for evading taxes.
Why didn't Federalists campaign as hard as Republicans in the election?
They were snobs. It was "beneath them" to ask common people to vote for them.
What two men were tied for President in the election of 1800?
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
Who decided the how the tie would be broken?
They gave the problem to the House of Representatives who also reached a tie vote.
Why did Aaron Burr eventually kill Alexander Hamilton?
Hamilton finally convinced some Federalists in Congress that Jefferson wasn't too bad and they voted him in. Burr never forgave Hamilton for betraying him.
What was one of Jefferson's first acts as President?
Let the Alien and Sedition Acts expire;
ended internal taxes;
reduced the military
Why did the country's election of Jefferson mean a "revolution" in government?
It mean that the Federalist principles of government (concentrating all the power in Washington and having huge military) were dead.
What was Jefferson's vision for the US?
A mostly agrarian (farming) country with economic equality for farming families instead of a small class of wealthy businessmen.
What was the Judicial Act of 1801?
Just as they were leaving office, the Federalists sneakily added 16 judges and 6 courts.
How did the new President Jefferson respond to the Judiciary Act once he got into office?
Got rid of it and appointed JOHN MARSHALL as CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE SUPREME COURT.
How did Marshall deal with the problems with Judge William Marbury?
He said the Judiciary Act was illegal (siding with Jefferson).
How did Marshall expand the power of the the courts?
With his decision in the Marbury case, he began JUDICIAL REVIEW of US laws to decide if they are constitutional.