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24 Cards in this Set

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Transfer RNA
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis.
Messenger RNA
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell.
Ribosomal RNA
type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes.
Transformation
the process in which one strain of bacteria changes into another one.
bacteriophage
a virus that infects and kills bacteria.
helix
shape formed by each stand of DNA
replication
process in which DNA makes a copy of itself
DNA polymerase
the principle enzyme involved in DNA replication
histone
protein that DNA wraps around in eukaryotic chromosomes.
promoter
signal in DNA that indicates to enzymes where to bind to make RNA
introns
three nucleotides that specify a single amino acid to be added to a polypeptide.
codon
gene that is transcribed into RNA
mutation
a change in DNA sequence that affects genetic information.
expressed gene
sections of RNA molecules that are removed before a eukaryotic gene becomes functional
operon
a group of genes that is operated together.
nucleotides
made up of three parts: a deoxyribose molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
base pairing
the principle that states that hydrogen bonds can form only between certain bases in DNA.
chromatin
Eukaryotic chromosomes contain both DNA and protein tightly packed together to form a substance.
transcription
RNA molecules are produced by copying part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA into a complementary sequence in RNA.
RNA polymerase
The enzyme that uses one strand of DNA as a template to assemble nucleotides into a strand of RNA.
exons
after introns have been cut out of RNA molecules, the remaining pieces are spliced together.
translation
the decoding of a mRNA message into a protein
anticodon
The three bases on the tRNA molecule that are complementary to one of the mRNA condons
hox genes
a series of genes that controls organs and tissues that develope in various parts of the embryo.